lauantai 28. helmikuuta 2009

Life is meaningless. That's what makes it fun. yu are an alien that needs guts
i heard radioprogram and the most interesting part in it ..why should on outside intelligence BE with us

it needs our bodies. im just a human as far but i don think yu are on a rollercoaster
i like the corner
they wanted som cybersex. another interesting part was 'universal mind has been insane' satying so long with us..i know it can hypnotize. rprovoke false memories. and if yu dont tell this to nobody i can say that reading bible from the view of artificial intelligence is interestin

thou canst not stir a flower Without troubling of a star

OPUS was formed as a response to a need for a "clearing house" organization to provide referral and research services for unusual personal experiences. Such experiences may include close encounters with nonhuman type entities and parapsychological phenomena. Our two basic goals are to assist persons who are seeking help in dealing with experiences outside the scope of mainstream health care, and to be a datagathering body to collect information which may further overall knowledge in these areas. This information would be made available to researchers, therapists and experiencers alike who share the common desire to make some sense of these anomalous experiences. Regardless of our interest personal, professional, academic, etc. we all want to get to the bottom of this mystery.

Choose your Metaphysics...Dualism.. the universe as being made up of matter and energy, as well as consciousness. Constructivism is an educational philosophy consistent with this view.
Transcendental monism views the universe as being made up of consciousness. (Goswami, Reed, & Goswami, 1993). Here, consciousness is primary, and matter and energy materialize from it (Herbert, 1985). From this perspective, ultimate reality is not found solely in the physical or phenomenal world as we know it; rather, it lies in a dimension or dimensions beyond the physical, which is holomovement or the ground of all that there is (Talbot, 1991). Quantum physics describes such a reality in which all things in the physical universe are connected at the quantum level (Al-Khalili, 1999; Talbot, 1991). Physicist David Bohm said that the universe can be understood only if the unbroken wholeness is perceived.
At the quantum level, there is no fragmentation, only parts that are interconnected with greater systems and greater wholes. The things that we encounter in our phenomenal world (explicate reality) are merely an unfolding of a deeper reality (implicate reality), which is beyond our physical senses. It is consciousness, a very subtle form of energy, that creates movement from implicate order to the explicate order of our physical world (Bohm, 1980). Thus, consciousness is the cause, and physical phenomena are the effect.
One form of trans-logical thinking, altered states of consciousness, has been particularly prominent in innovations in both the science and the arts (Harman & Rheingold, 1984).

all this against materialistic monism and economical utilitarism which is the dominant view in society and education now.

• M-1 MATERIALISTIC MONISM (Matter giving rise to mind)
• M-2 DUALISM (Matter plus mind)
• M-3 TRANSCENDENTAL MONISM (Mind giving rise to matter)

The Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair

i donno if consciousness wants special circuit arrangement
impulses traveling the various neurons analogized as software, then the physical neurons would be the hardware. Nevertheless, every brain has an extreme (ly messy) wiring diagram. brain's performance depends on a “neural code mmmmsssxx"
Siksi sinä puhut heille vertauksin"

brain employs subtler codes. One of them might be a temporal code, in which information is represented not just in a cell's rate of firing but also in the timing between spikes. anyone has the potential to construct genes ". . . The characters' lack of freedom is based on the fact that the author is real, while the characters are not. But once Pushkin is in the story, and is therefore fictional, then the fictional characters gain a new appearance of freedom.

MISHLOVE: Consciousness has always been a problem for science, and one, I think, for the most part that's been sort of shoved under the Rug.

"their home turf appears to be the periphery of human consciousness," who

........................Eräänä myöhäisenä iltana, kun Tammisaaren pakkotyölaitoksen valot oli sammutettu, loikoilin petilläni, niin kuin siellä sanottiin, ja katselin pienen ristikkoikkunan läpi tähtitaivasta, jossa tähdet hiljaa vaelsivat. Tuo avaruuden näkeminen viritti minua jollakin tavalla sisäisesti, sillä yhtäkkiä tunsin olevani absoluuttisesti vapaa. Se oli ensimmäinen kerta, jolloin tunsin mitä on vapaus.

perjantai 27. helmikuuta 2009

should a mere journalist question Kurzweil’s conclusion that some of us alive today will live indefinitely

Dna47_3_2 DNA has been found to have a bizarre ability to put itself together, even at a distance, when according to known science it shouldn't be able to. Explanation: None, at least not yet.

Scientists are reporting evidence that contrary to our current beliefs about what is possible, intact double-stranded DNA has the “amazing” ability to recognize similarities in other DNA strands from a distance. Somehow they are able to identify one another, and the tiny bits of genetic material tend to congregate with similar DNA. The recognition of similar sequences in DNA’s chemical subunits, occurs in a way unrecognized by science. There is no known reason why the DNA is able to combine the way it does, and from a current theoretical standpoint this feat should be chemically impossible.

the rising interest in yogic practice and lore, Eastern concepts like chakra, subtle forces, and shaktipat are being absorbed in popular culture.


say my personal ufologist : I've come to tentatively identify with the role of the shaman. Upon waking, my mind feels ponderous with ideas seeking escape; a portal has been opened, but a portal to where. Western science mostly ignores the idea of a kundalini because no one knows how to measure it.
Shamanism in western world is non-ordinary (human?) consciousness.alternative consciousness, non-ordinary reality. Shamanism, the oldest and most intertwined with the cultures in which it is practiced, is explored as a model for individual healing, coping mechanisms, transformative values that may be helpful in trying and important transition time ( for humanity).

open the cage George Adamski (18911965) oli puolalaissyntyinen yhdysvaltalainen kirjailija, joka tuli tunnetuksi matkakuvauksistaan lentävien lautasten kyydissä. 1930-luvulla Adamski muun muassa perusti Kaliforniaan esoteeris-kristillisen luostarin.

Adamski tuli tunnetuksi yhdessä Desmond Leslien kanssa kirjoittamansa kirjan Flying Saucers Have Landed (1953) ansiosta. Kirjassa oli myös kuvia lentävistä lautasista. Alkuperäisen tekstin Adamski oli tarkoittanut tieteisromaaniksi, mutta huomasi sitten, että markkinat olivat paljon paremmat, kun kertomus tarjoiltiin omakohtaisiin kokemuksiin perustuvana tositarinana.

torstai 26. helmikuuta 2009

change my mind later, if I want to . . .

Three women are chatting about their relationships with their men and decided to amaze them. All three buy black leather bras " stiletto heels, and masks for their eyes.
After a few days, they meet over lunch to compare notes.

The engaged one says:

The other night when my boyfriend came over, he found me in the black leather bodice, tall stilettos, and a mask. He said, "you are the woman of my life. I love you". Then we made love all night long.

The mistress says:

I met my lover at his office and I was wearing the leather bodice, heels, mask over my eyes and a raincoat. When I opened the raincoat, he didn't say a word -- but we had wild sex all night.

The married woman says:

I sent the kids to my mother's house all excited about having alone time with my husband. Had the lights dim, candles going, I was wearing the leather bodice, black stockings, stilettos heels and a mask over my eyes. As soon as he came to the door and saw me and said,
"What's for dinner, BATMAN
unexplainable nice analytical article, an answers the wrong questions

keskiviikko 25. helmikuuta 2009

PrivacyIllusion? Pizza Delivery 2010 (frig

where to writet

what to do with wings

1. How does one "prove" the existence of something where no proof is accepted?

2. How much has ( america grown with technology, and how much _matured_?
3. Why have our plethora media nottold us
11. Whats official ?

13. _Does_ a "professionally trained" observer remotely trump an untrained one? Will they _both_ make the same kind mistakes"?

maanantai 23. helmikuuta 2009

isteh coffeecup

they must have been contacted us many times, in history and present. hallitseminen on tiedon salaamista, demokratian olisi aika tull a 'jumalalle', uskontoon ja

lauantai 21. helmikuuta 2009

Essence is optimism And hope!

a first graffiti is about to bi born in our shady corridoor im eager to sii...
the house is so warm thet doors must be open anyway
today i woke up with these sweet karamels
saw my first magic ever (exept in the own life) in others, that was something! the sun is here and the son called
i think im veeri happy (she didnt go to school, am maby tomorrow, yes tomorrow)
did you ever have a computer colliding. new page can still be put on
thats what the alien du. to know lot of facts is not enough. you need optimism)

Seeing with humility, curiosity and fresh eyes was once the main point of science.

[to my children] if this miracle ever happened I would receive it in the spirit of TiggerAs long as we’re still pondering human origins, we may as well entertain the idea that our ancestor microbes came from c "The Dreaming Mind is
the Doorway to Eternity" Like all systems of truth seeking, science, properly conducted, has a profoundly expansive, liberating impulse at its core. This "Zen" in the heart of science is revealed Seeing with humility, curiosity and fresh eyes was once the main point of science.

mermai dreamin

middleclass america

Moni Amerikassa on ajat sitten lakannut pohtimasta, mikä on totta ja mikä ei. * viime aikoina 30% - 40% Vapaan Maailman liikevoitoista (”corporate profits”) on syntynyt finanssisektorilla. Tämä on merkki sairaasta taloudesta.

Totuus on kuopattu, sen tilalle on syntynyt kaksi rinnakkaista totuutta.* u.s. iso sosiaalinen ongelma. Tosin meillä on nykyään joitakin turvaverkkoja, kuten työttömyystuki, ruoka-apu (”Food Stamps”), sosiaaliturva jne, mutta meillä Yhdysvalloissa on yksi teollisuusmaitten huonoimpia turvaverkkoja. ei tunnu olevan eväitä Wikipedia Stiglitzistä never min d there has been no intellectual challenge to the refutation of Adam Smith’s invisible hand:

Köyhyydellä on objektiivisia ja subjektiivisia piirteitä pains sayin. is not about light on thi sky
its about lies on the groun. Space is only an hour's drive away if your car could go upwards 9,000-word Chinese report depicts a bleak picture of the US
saying. violent crime is a widespread threat to personal security.

The American people's economic, social and cultural rights are not properly protected, say

"The US practice of throwing stones at others while living in a glass house is testimony to the double standards and hypocrisy

You can check-out any time you like, But you can never leave!'


( He did not say this because he cared about the poorSee, this is getting us somewhere?

Haluttaisi tietää, mihin G:n noeettinen akti kohdistuu..:Päähän. Siinä sulle vastausta - Husserl. Päähän.

happy in this world you live in
"The Simulation Argument is perhaps the first interesting argument for the existence of a Creator in years."

torstai 19. helmikuuta 2009

god is a simulation, imitation

onli gri, griis
thissis my place and the limits as far as i know
what are all these sacred teskts you know: poesias. I don't think -- whatever they are – the desire acknowledgment..the enigma is both trickster and trigger -- indisputablle,

but not real in a conventional way.

whaa du juu mean governments are preparing disclosure of evidence? Simulointi tai simulaatio on todellisuuden jäljittelyä. Ihminen simuloi todellisuutta omassa mielikuvitusmaailmassaan. Nisäkkäillä ja marsilaisilla merkittävää todellisuuden jäljittelyä on leikki. me olemme se. Ihmisen ja jumalan kyky tulevaisuuden ennakointiin (vrt. "isän ja äidin" tai metsästyksen leikkiminen), on ollut yksi hänen keinoistaan selvitä. i suppose im virtual

Shouldn't we be set free from this universe and not be bound by its annoying rules? Flying or teleporting to the other end of town is much better than taking the car.
our reality is the (a?) simulation. We are confined by the rules set therein and the most important rule is that existing outside of our reality

The simulacrum is never that which conceals the truth--it is the truth which conceals that there is none.

The simulacrum is true. To dissimulate is to feign not to have what one has. To simulate is to feign to have what one hasn't. One implies a presence, the other an absence.

the difference is clear, it is masked; simulation threatens the difference between "true" and "false", between "real" and "imaginary" finally i understand wha plato told us. When the real is no longer what it used to be, nostalgia assumes its full meaning. There is a proliferation of myths of origin and signs of reality; of second-hand truth, objectivity and authenticity. There is an escalation of the true, of the lived experience; a resurrection of the figurative where the object and substance have disappeared. And there is a panic-stricken production of the real and the referential, above and parallel to the panic of material production. This is how simulation appears in the phase that concerns us: a strategy of the real, neo-real and hyperreal, whose universal double is a strategy of deterrence.

disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulation. To begin with it is a play of illusions and phantasms: pirates, the frontier, future world, etc. This imaginary world is supposed to be what makes it successful.

The Tunnel to Flimsy


some piple have talent but they care about blame on huu. i blame the god only because wi live in a simulation ofcourse, and occasionally care (mi) rights. and tomorrow i mean in the morniing i had a comment on my personal alien. why so serious?If a Type I or Type II civilization seems godlike to our own relatively primitive "Type O" civilization, it's worth remembering that even a solar system-spanning intelligence is far from immortal. wha t i know s that these guy have a much higer moral we do, the moral of alien streightens, And is horryfyin
also, theres been no democracy.* Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement. haaha luk at this!
  • Tyyppi I: sivilisaatio, joka pystyy hallitsemaan yhden planeetan energiaa
  • Tyyppi II: sivilisaatio, joka pystyy hallitsemaan yhden tähden energiaa
  • Tyyppi III: sivilisaatio, joka pystyy hallitsemaan yhden galaksin energiaa

Tyypin I saavuttaminen:

  • Fuusiovoiman käyttö suuressa mittakaavassa. Fuusiovoima on varsin uusi tutkimuksen kohde. Ensimmäisten fuusioreaktorien kaupallinen käyttöönotto on arvioitu tapahtuvan 2050-luvulla.
  • Energiantuotto antimaterialla ei ole mahdollista järkevässä mittakaavassa nykyisellä teknologialla. Mikäli sivilisaatio pystyisi tuottamaan suuria määriä antimateriaa halvalla, sen mahdollistama energiantuotto olisi usean suuruusluokan suurempi kuin nykyinen. Kun kilogramma materiaa ja antimateriaa kohtaavat, vapautuu 1,8 ×1017 J (180 petajoulea), energia, joka vapautuu noin 45 megatonnin ydinaseen räjähtäessä.
  • Aurinkoenergian suuren mittakaavan käyttöönotto. Tämä edellyttää joko aurinkokennoja ja/tai sen epäsuoraa hyödyntämistä vesi- tai tuulivoiman muodossa. Tyypin I saavuttaminen aurinkoenergian avulla on käytännössä saavutettavissa vain suurilla aurinkoenergiasatelliiteilla.
Dysonin pallo

Tyypin II saavuttaminen:

Tyypin III saavuttaminen on mahdollista samoilla keinoilla kuin tyypin II, mutta suuremmassa mittakaavassa, esimerkiksi rakentamalla Dysonin pallo galaksin jokaisen tähden ympärille. uuu. bound to stay on this island.

Here’s hoping will be one :cool: Secret Sun hews no political, religious or philosophical niid. yur energyfield The aura electromagnetic field that surrounds the human body (Human Energy Field-HEF) and every organism and object in the Universe.

keskiviikko 18. helmikuuta 2009

couldhavebeen-should-is a filter

According to impermanence human life embodies flux in aging (samsara), and in any experience of loss. mutta ehkä sille ei pidä alistua. tänään meillä on kanakeittoa ja mustekalaa liemessä
mitä yhteistä
niillä. Antrooppinen periaate (kreik. anthropos, ihminen), tarkoittaa väitettä, joka voidaan muotoilla seuraavasti: jotta kaikkeuden ominaisuuksia voitaisiin havaita, niiden tulee olla sellaisia, että havaitsijoita voi olla olemassa. kehäpäätelmä? Vahvimmassa muodossaan antrooppinen periaate väittää, että maailmankaikkeus on hienoviritetty nimenomaan planeetta Telluksella asustelevalle ihmiselle. Perusteluna on esitetty elämän synnyn voimakasta herkkyyttä fysiikan perusvakioiden suuruuksille. Pienetkin muutokset joidenkin luonnonvakioiden arvoissa olisivat saattaneet johtaa aivan toisenlaiseen universumiin, useimmiten pimeään ja elottomaan. Kuten fyysikko Freeman Dyson on sanonut, on kuin universumi olisi tiennyt, että me olemme tulossa. Tämä muotoilu vihjaa ei ainoastaan Suureen Tarkoitukseen vaan myös siihen, että räätälöidyn kosmoksen takana täytyy olla Räätäli. kysymyksessä on jonkinlainen jumaluustesti. aälykkyystesti jumalan kanssa

ai wonder ift ever has been raining soo much on these islands

If Bostrom's right

is there past or future in art. The art of the past is mady more alive
than it ever was
selittämistä vaikeuttaa usein se, että kuvittelen ymmärtäneeni asian hyvin
Bostrom has a background in physics, computational neuroscience, and mathematical logic as well as analytic philosophy. His research interests center on big picture questions for humanity, with a focus on issues in the foundations of probability theory, scientific methodology and rationality, human enhancement, global catastrophic risks, moral philosophy, and consequences of future technology.

*Bostrom's simulation hypothesis is an example of a skeptical hypothesis, a proposal *concerning the nature of reality put forward to question beliefs, and as such, there is a long *history to the underlying thesis that reality is an illusion. This thesis can be dated back to *Plato, arguably underpins the Mind-Body Dualism of Descartes, and is closely related to *phenomenalism, a stance briefly adopted by Bertrand Russell. However, Bostrom has argued *that this is not the case, and there are empirical reasons why the 'Simulation Hypothesis' *might be valid. He suggests that if it is possible to simulate entire inhabited planets or even *entire universes on a computer, and that such simulated people can be fully conscious, then *the sheer number of such simulations likely to be produced by any sufficiently advanced *civilization (taken together with his Strong Self-Sampling Assumption) makes it extremely *likely that we are in fact currently living in such a simulation

haii do not encourage this & will not be responsible for any loss

On a serious note, you're still giving aliens human motives: "curiosity, domination, risk". Might be closer to your answer if you randomly mix emotions, colors, numbers and nouns together then try to wrap your head around that. For example, because the blue 15 is rounded on the escarpment melange happy/sad continuum.

That's the problem with aliens is that their alien.
the family theres a mystical colibrium, equilibrium

tiistai 17. helmikuuta 2009

I consider myself lucky to have grown up in a time in which constant improvement of oneself and one's society was considered primary asteroscopio about the star
uskonnonfilosofiassa pidetään olennaisena erona yliluonnollisen selitystekijän läsnäoloa
Yliluonnollinen on aina aina jotakin, joka on ristiriitaista, paradoksaalista tai mahdotonta arkitodellisuuden kannalta katsottuna

vaikeimmista ja tärkeimmistä oppimistani asioista on taito pysyä
En voi lähettää sinulle selitystäni siitä mitä romantiikka tarkoittaa, koska siitä tulisi mitallinen
but what does a nutshell do in a coffecup?
universe is a simulation with finite boundaries vey well
we are martians
plus our dubbelgäng, mabi worth to know
i love this speculation cause it very well discribes experience..the whole amount of information..happy to find it
why an advanced intelligence might create a simulated world? mi beeing experiment? if they take careof the bunnies mm
thats better than beeing just a game

consciousness can be reproduced, im sure
and mechanical, yu say

"invisible landscape"

the quotetion Terence McKenna suggested that the surreal hallucinatory states experienced by "trippers" might constitute a form of extraterrestrial contact, vastly more intimate than the radio signals anticipated by his mainstream counterparts.

On Intelligence *(this ones no important but a way)
two rivals are trying to identify the "God Particle" - one of the fundamental particles of matter.

Finding the Higgs boson, whose existence has been predicted by theoretical physicists, might help to explain why matter has mass

what mean powerful AI

maanantai 16. helmikuuta 2009

At its deepest level, physical reality may have an ometric intricacy that would be satisfying to any intelligences on Earth or beyond

letssee if remember any english words. if foudn a nice englishspeakin blogger. how was mi day well granmather provoked..went to the other house to calm. never been there before.20 years. 500 videos. Pornography & feminism & culture. Religious ecstasy & sexual ecstasy. Spirituality & belonging. Pair bonding & monogamy. Joy. Friction. The deep deep deep unspoken unknown shame and pain about sexuality.
"Our best chance
of finding God
is to look
in the place
where we left him."
Meister Eckhart

didnt see anybody but imagined some. its a small house, very warm with aricondition in one ocrner. i was thinking about you. A fish may be barely aware of the medium in which it lives and swims; certainly it has no intellectual powers to comprehend that water consists of interlinked atoms of hydrogen and oxygen. The microstructure of empty space could, likewise, be far too complex for unaided human brains to grasp

outside of 'Time' it appears that quantum computing provides a technological method of causal feedback: the fangs of the Ouroboros serpent and the apocalyptic religious visions seen by shamans/priests/saints/schizoids throughout human history could be primitive interpretations of seeing

Almost nothing is simply true or false in the way that abstract logic requires.

i believe its alla inside, exept if something Will bi

yes there are some problems in communicating with Them. did we ever really understand it by brain (only by faith..There IS a snappy repartee. "the most incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible"
our brain is not the lmit 11/09

Mathematics: The only true universal language

Leash. Go ideas in my sketchbook for a new "Alice in wonderland". We marvel at the fact that the universe is not anarchic - that atoms obey the same laws in distant galaxies as in the lab.

Program, based on criteria and an agenda. This list is it?
Op informed.

A fortuitous accident "random."
You really understand? I doubt a very sophisticated CI program in CI op informed topics.

All your experiences regarding how much you have been mentored. the world is essentially a geometrical structure
Examine fresh all topics.
I received unknown.

The CI operatives have bigger than you can imagine
The CI operatives have a list leash.
Go find it.

An operative lives in those
Or is it?
Message is said with plausible deniability. Trails without help.
It is time to mentor and you have a mind leash.

You with plausible deniability. Names once I respected.
Several of your travels were our choice. Respected.

Accident "random" error
A quiet room unknown.
A fortuitous accident.

Go with plausible deniability.

You have a mind leash. Go down false trails without help. Names once I respected.

Operatives have a list and
Mentor (and influence, hmm)

Do you really understand? Is either raving nonsense or ... believe.:.)
I could name many names. All mind games.

Or lives in AZ.

sunnuntai 15. helmikuuta 2009

our maths is necessarily anthropoμετtric

"Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge: it is those who know little, and not those. Singularity University (SU) ( will open its doors in June 2009 on the NASA Research Park campus with a nine-week graduate level interdisciplinary curriculum designed to facilitate understanding, collaboration, and innovation across a broad range of carefully chosen scientific and technological disciplines.

Re: Are human beings good?
posted on 01/01/2003 7:57 PM by Ecowarrior

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[Not MindX Material]

We must go back to living within nature with small groups of people with pre-historic style hunting and gathering technology so that its impossible for us to impact the environment so badly. Really the existence of humans isn't needed as far as nature is concerned. We don't pollinate flowers like bees or feed animals like plankton do. We should work toward erradicating the human race in a humane fashion that is as enviromentally friendly as possible. You might check out the Voluntary Human Extinction Movement Like their motto, may we live long and die out. Like that professor said, not only are we unfit custodians for new forms of life but we're unfit for living on this planet in the first place.

[Reply] [Parent]

Re: Are human beings good?
posted on 01/01/2003 9:40 PM by boffin

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[Not MindX Material]

timeline we have left to be any good......

c3,000,000,000 BC: DNA provides symbolic 'memory' of useful proteins
c1,000,000,000 BC: mental models anticipate natural events
c500,000,000 BC: behavioral models anticipate creatures' reactions

memory molecules start each generation with tabula rasa

c100,000,000 BC: nocturnal dreams manifest poetic symbolism

7,000,000 BC: chimp-level society, imitative culture, gesture and facial-expressions, limited tool-use

artifacts embody intuitive sense of measure

nonverbal community knowledgebase: local personalities, local geography, shelter-skills, food and medicine skills, hunting skills, war and defense skills

selection for throwing-aim? (intuitive ballistics) 'throwing madonna' hypothesis: [etext]

2,700,000 BC: australopithecus keeps pebble that resembles a face [info]

2,340,000 BC: sophisticated stone tools (homo habilis?) [info]

100,000 BC? African diaspora; toolkit includes fire, bow and arrow, woven nets, dogs

language slowly extended to describe all important phenomena

storytelling evolves; divination employs vocabulary of probable outcomes

80,000 BC: earliest intentional burial? (hypothesis of afterlife) [info]
70,000 BC: geometric scratchings on amber [info]
40,000 BC: beads as body-ornaments [info]
35,000 BC: cave-paintings
30,000 BC: 'fertility' figurines
30,000 BC: moon-phases tracked on notched bones? [info] [more]

15,000 BC: cave painting tracks moon phases [cite]
10,000 BC? hypothetical symbolic 'language of the goddess' in southeast Europe [info]

8000 BC: navigation of Aegean (limited obsidian trade)
6500 BC: possible discovery of prime numbers? [bone]
6000 BC: desertification of Sahara [cite]
4000 BC: Egyptian bureaucracy begins to grow up around Nile-irrigation
4000 BC: accounting via clay tokens in Sumer [info]
3700 BC: complex symbols scratched on account-tokens
3500 BC: cylinder seals
3400 BC: 1st writing in Egypt (timeline of dynasties?)
3300 BC: numerical notation on tablets; cuneiform
3300 BC: Iceman carries antibiotic mushrooms [info]
3200 BC: astronomical megalith at Newgrange, Ireland
3000 BC? water clock in China
2800 BC: epic of Gilgamesh
2800 BC: construction of pyramids requires engineering and accounting

armies require increasingly sophisticated record-keeping
tax rolls; contracts, wills, banking
Aegean sea-trade (oil, wine, opium?)

2200 BC: Stonehenge (astronomical megalith) [info]
2000 BC: earliest sails
1900 BC: Sinuhe of Egypt (1st autobiography?) [etext]
1800 BC: Sumerian kinglist (early history)
1750 BC: Code of Hammurabi (legal-knowledge representation) [etext]
1700 BC: 1st consonantal alphabet, proto-canaanite [info]

wisdom literature (earliest social science?)
medical treatises
magical literature
wordlists (proto-thesaurus)

1500 BC: earliest known sundial in Egypt [cite]
1500 BC: Mesopotamian recipe for glaze written in code [cite]
1350 BC: Akhnaten's artistic revolution (realistic sculpture)
1250 BC: proto-canaanite alphabet adapted by Phoenicians [info] [pic]
1200 BC: Hierombalus of Beirut writes about Phoenician religion [cite]
1200 BC: Trojan war? hypothetical ecological collapse in Greece
1100 BC: Tiglath-pileser I of Assyria collects literature into library incl. 'humanised' version of Gilgamesh flood-epic [cite]

1000 BC: I Ching in China (binary notation, story-skeletons)
800 BC: monotheism emerges in mideast [cite]
750 BC: Homeric epics (storytelling breakthru), Hesiod's mythology
750 BC: Greeks innovate democratic ideal [cite]
700 BC: touchstone makes uniform coinage possible
pre-600 BC: abacus [cite]

Sparta innovates mandatory schooling

lyric poetry

Ionian rationalist philosophy [cite] 1st book in prose by Anaximander

650 BC: Nineveh library contains Gilgamesh [cite]
622 BC: Josiah's book of the law (proto-Deuteronomy)
600 BC? Zoroaster's metaphysical dualism
594 BC: Solon's lawcode [info]
580 BC: Aesop's fables
556 BC: Nabonidus of Babylon pursues antiquarian researches
550 BC: Pythagorean dualism (evil of flesh) nature as mathematical

534 BC: 1st Greek tragedy-competition (storytelling breakthru)
c450 BC: tragedies of Aeschylus
440 BC: histories of Herodotus
440 BC: Democritus proposes atom
432 BC: Greek calendar reform [info]

Athenian political speeches preserved

c425 BC: Socratic method of teaching
420 BC: pigeon-automaton of Archytas
c400 BC: Hippocratic medicine
c400 BC: Polyclitus, Greek sculptor (realism breakthru?)
400 BC: Ezra's Old Testament
331 BC: library at Alexandria
330 BC: Aristotle's survey of all knowledge
300 BC: Euclid's geometry
260 BC: Aristarchus of Samos estimates distance and size of moon
250 BC: Archimedes (plagiarises ancient Egyptians? debate)
240 BC: Eratosthenes measures radius of Earth
200 BC: accurate Egyptian water clock
100 BC: 1st poetry anthology, Stephanos

Rome manages Empire via bureaucracy (and army)

Roman army trains with simulated opponents? [cite]

65 BC: Antikythera mechanism simulates planetary motions [info]

c0: Strabo's Geography


candle clock


70 AD: Pliny the Elder's 39-volume universal encyclopedia

c100 AD: Epictetus

150 AD: Ptolemy synthesizes astronomical knowledge in "Mathematike Syntaxis"

200 AD: Galen

230 AD: 1st Roman actuarial table [cite]

721: Abu Hayyan prepares nitric acid, et al

750: Al Yahmadi's book on cryptography [cite]

985: astrolabe copied from Arabs

1086: Domesday Book

1098: Cistercian monastic order synthesizes self-sufficient domestic efficiency

1100: Piscan Document 1st systematic bookkeeping [cite]

c1100: Salerno first university

1160: English tally sticks offer versatile bookkeeping system [cite] [more]

c1200: Moses Maimonides codifies Talmudic law

c1200: development of kabbalah (pseudo-mathematical mysticism)

1250: Baltic traders improve ship designs

1260: Roger Bacon set the basis of empiricism

1280: water-powered paper mill in Italy

c1285: verge-and-foliot system permits mechanical clockworks

pre-1300: double-entry bookkeeping in Italy [cite]

c1300: 1st cannon smash castles

1307: Raymond Lully's combinatorial 'Ars Magna' [pic] [info] [comp sci] ditto

1314: Dante's Inferno (9-level ethical classification) [info]

1347: Occam's Razor [cite]

various revolutions in artistic realism

c1450: spring-driven clocks using sprung metal

1457: Gutenburg prints Psalter with moveable type

1466: Alberti's cypher disk [cite]

1480-1494 Leonardo de Vinci

1494: Pacioli writes 1st accounting textbook, "Summa de Arithmetica, Geometrica, Proportioni et Proportionalite" [info]

c1500: Europe adopts decimal notation [cite]

1537: Fontana's gunner's quadrant for aiming cannon

1540: Toriano's mandolin-playing automaton

1543: Copernicus

Francis Bacon critiques imprecision of natural languages [cite]

1546: Hieronymus Francastorius discovers contagious infection [cite]

1553: Belaso invents code using passphrase [cite]

1556: Agricola's "De Re Metallica" synthesizes knowledge of metals

1571: Digges' theodolite for surveying and aiming

1579: Saxton's atlas of England

1581-1632? Galileo's experiments

1595: Dutch introduce efficient 'fluyt' design for merchant ships

1600: William Gilbert's "De Magnete" synthesizes magnetism, predicts vacuum in space

1608: Lippershey invents telescope; Galileo makes astronomical observations

1605: Cervantes' Don Quixote (storytelling breakthru)

1616: Harvey discusses circulation of blood [cite]

1617: John Napier's "Napier's bones"; logarithms [cite]

1629: 20Nov: Descartes discusses universal language [cite]

1632: 1st sliderule, William Oughtred [cite]

1642: Blaise Pascal's Pascaline (automatic calculating machine) [cite]

1644: Toricelli's barometer explains puzzle re pumping out mines

1660: 1st banknotes issued by English goldsmiths [cite]

1661: Becher proposes 'mechanical dictionary' for translation [cite]

1662: Boyle's law [cite]

1668: John Wilkins proposes universal language [cite]

1671 (1694?): Leibnitz's multiplying machine [cite]

1672: Guericke's "Experimenta Nova Magdeburg." vacuum pump, static elec.

1680: Leibnitz wants to collate all knowledge; proposes resolving disputes by calculation: "Calculemus" [bio]

1683: 'bill of credit' encourages investment, leads to Bank of England

1683: Leewenhoek discovers microscopic life [cite]

1687: Newton's Principia

1688: Lloyd's coffeeshop will become Lloyd's insurance

1701: Leibnitz publishes work on binary arithmetic

1725: Vico's "New Science" calls for universal thesaurus of concepts

1725: Bouchon's automated silk loom

1726: Swift parodies Lully's(?) AI in 'Gulliver's Travels' [etext] [pic]

"These Bits of Wood were covered on every Square with Papers pasted on them; and on these Papers were written all the Words of their Language in their several Moods, Tenses. and Declensions, but without any Order. The Professor then desired me to observe, for he was going to set his Engine at work..." [quote]
1728: Chambers' "Cyclopaedia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences"

1736: Euler's differential equations for mechanics

1740: Huntsman makes crucible steel, enabling accurate watches

c1740: Halley fails to calculate comet's path [cite]
1757? comet's path calculated after many months [cite]

Industrial Revolution allows UK productivity to grow 2%/yr for next 150 yrs [cite]

Rothschild banking dynasty begins

1751-1772: Diderot's Encyclopedia

1770: Wedgwood analyses cost accounting [info]

1772: Lavoisier proposes conservation of mass in chemical reactions

1773: London Stock Exchange [cite]

1774: Jesse Ramsden innovates fast, accurate machining for sextants

1775: Wilkinson bores cylinders in cannon with guide-bar

1776: Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations" (invisible-hand metaphor)

1777: Stanhope's logic demonstrator

1786: Muller's difference engine [cite]

1787: Watts' steam engine with feedback-governor

1790: metric system introduced in France

1798: Malthus's Essay on the Principles of Population.

c1800: 19 volumes of math tables prepared over 6 years in France [cite]

c1800 Jacquard loom

1800: London has just eleven 'accomptants' [cite]

1803: Robertson and Lloest measure weather in a balloon at 23,000 feet

1811: Avogadro proposes numerical constant [cite]

1817: Bessel introduces Bessel functions for three-body problem [bio]

1819: Blanchard lathe

1820: Oersted connects electricity and magnetism

1821? Babbage's paper "Observations on the Application of Machinery to the Computation of Mathematical Tables"

1821: Faraday's electric motor

1822: Babbage's Difference Engine (not completed)

1822: Thomas machine mass-produced [cite]

1824: Carnot founds thermodynamics [cite]

1825: Sturgeon's electromagnet

1830-1840: Justus von Liebeg applies quantitative analysis to biological systems [cite]

1832: Babbage's Analytic Engine (never built)

c1835: UK Royal Observatory employs computing team [cite]

1837: telegraph

1838: US Congress requires inspection of steam boilers [cite]

1839: Verhulst models population growth [cite]

1839: Babbage's Difference Engine to solve differential equations

Babbage's analytic engine planned to hold partial results in 'mill', branching via 'control', input on punched cards, printed output [cite]

1844: Britain requires system of auditors [cite]

1846: faster telegraphy using punched tape

1846: Joule demonstrates mechanical nature of heat [cite]

1847: Boole's symbolic logic (1854?)

1852: Roget's Thesaurus

1855: spring: Rockefeller studies bookkeeping [bio]

1855: France establishes network of weather stations

1855: Silliman distills various useful fractions from petroleum [cite]

1855: Andrew Carnegie and JE Thomson develop sophisticated cost accounting [cite] [more]

1856: Flaubert's Madame Bovary (storytelling breakthru) [info]

1860: Pasteur's germ theory [cite]

1861: Francis Galton's book of weather maps

1863: 1st patent for player piano

1867: Karl Marx 'Das Kapital' (socioeconomic model) [etext]

1869: Bagehot's "Physics and Politics or Thoughts on the Application of the Principles of 'Natural Selection' and 'Inheritance' to Political Society"

1869: WS Jevons' Logical Piano

1869: periodic table of Mendeleev

1873: Dewey Decimal System

1874: WT Odhner's calculator 1st to use much-copied pinwheel principle (30k sold)

1874? Albert Fink innovates cost-per-ton-mile for railroad accounting [cite] [bio]

1870s: US Nautical Almanac, Harvard Observatory employ computing teams [cite]

1876: Lord Kelvin's analyzer

1877: Edison's phonograph

1878: Muybridge's zoopraxiscope

1878: Verea's multiplying machine

1879: Frege's notation for predicate calculus

1881: Frederick Taylor's time-motion studies

1881: Marquand's logic machine

1883: Reynolds publishes theory of Reynolds number [cite]

1884: Galton's 1st anthropometric lab (statistical physical anthropology)

1884: Felt models 1st 'Comptometer' in macaroni box [pg-imgs]

1884: international standardisation of 24 timezones (to accommodate telegraph and railroads) [info]

1885: Burroughs adding machine [cite]

digital era
1886: CS Pierce proposes electrical version of Marquand's logic machine

(the full world of meanings previously embodied in images, words, numbers and algorithms now had to be rethought as bits)

pre-1890: US Census (Hollerith and Powers) innovates keypunch, sorter, tabulator [cite]

1889: Bollee's Multiplier (multiplication machine)

1890: Venn diagrams

1890: 30Aug: Scientific American features Hollerith's punched-card computer (13M cards for 60M individuals)

1891: rotary-dial telephone replaces human operator [passim]

1892: Galton publishes study of fingerprints [cite]

1893: Torres' algebraic equation solver can find roots of 9th-degree polynomials

1893: Steiger's 'Millionaire' calculating machine sells 4655 by 1935

1893: Edison's kinetoscope

1895: Gore's actuarial punchcard system

1897: Durkheim's 'Suicide' surveys theory of 'social contagion' [history]

1898: Michelson-Stratton 80-element harmonic analyzer

1899: Veblen's "Theory of the Leisure Class"

1899? early Burroughs machines unworkable

1900: Polti's "36 Dramatic Situations" (story skeletons)

1901: 1st issue of Karl Pearson's 'Biometrika: a journal for the statistical study of biological problems'

1901: Davis' Handbook of Chemical Engineering [cite]

1902: Rechnitzer calculator multiplies and divides [cite]

1903: Pastore's belt-driven syllogism-processor

1903: DuPont innovates cost accounting (return on investment) [cite]

1903: 28Dec: Janos 'John' von Neumann born in Hungary [bio]

1904: Bjerknes' "Weather Forecasting as a Problem in Mechanics and Physics"

1905: Einstein's miracle-year (relativity, etc)


telephone switches [history]

Steinmetz uses complex numbers to analyse electrical circuits [passim]

1910: Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica

1910: Bjerknes' "Dynamic Meteorology and Hydrography"

1912: Vannevar Bush's Profile Tracer automates surveying of elevations

1913: HG Wells' "Little Wars" rulebook for miniatures wargames [timeline]

1914: IBM's sales force popularizes computation in business

1914: Pearson's 'Tables for Statisticians and Biometricians'

1914: Fischer and Harris's tide predictor tracks 37 tidal components

WWI: computing teams on both sides produce shipping statistics, propellor-stress analysis, map grids, surveying aids, navigation tables and artillery tables [cite] (Norbert Wiener works at Aberdeen Proving Ground)

US War Industries Board headed by Bernard Baruch regulates all US production

1915? Torres' chess-machine plays endgame

1915: Arthur Little breaks down chemical engineering into 'unit operations' [cite]

1917: Thorndike and Yerkes' psych-tests for military

1917: Lanchester's 'Aircraft in Warfare' uses math analysis

1918: 14Jul: Jay Forrester born in Nebraska [bio]

1919: Pearson's textbooks for human-computers 'Tracts for Computers'

1919: Eccles-Jordan design flip-flop [cite]

1919: Lewis Fry Richardson's 'Mathematical Psychology of War' [site]

US Dept of Agriculture hires computing team [cite] to process farm data

1920: Monroe desk calculator [cite]

1920: Torres' electromechanical arithmometer solves problems typed in at keyboard, prints answers, theoretically supports time-sharing

1922: James Joyce's "Ulysses" (18-part psychological encyclopedia) [info]

1922: Minorsky analyses autopilot ('gyropilot') for ships

1922: Richardson's 'Weather Prediction by Numerical Process' [cite] [site]

1923: Alfred Sloan at General Motors innovates cost accounting [info] raids DuPont for talent

1923: Enigma code-machine marketed [cite]

1923: Ogden and Richards "The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism" [info]

c1925: Vannevar Bush's Product Integraph integrates complex curves using analog electronics

analog computers use voltage, resistance, translation and rotation as metaphors [passim]

1926: Jan: 1st issue of 'Industrial Psychology: the journal of human engineering'

1926: Dodd's Correlators used to predict hybrid yields, for industrial psych and vocational guidance

1926: FR Moulton's mathematical analysis of ballistics

1927: 'The Jazz Singer' 1st talking picture

1927: Propp's "Morphology of the Folktale" (story skeletons) [31 functions] [monomyth]

1927: USSR's 5yr-plan relies on punchcard technology

1927: Von Neumann's formalisation of quantum mechanics

1927-1930: Vannevar Bush builds 1st mechanical differential analyzer [cite]

1928: education-theorist Ben D Wood inventories 'baccalaureate mind'

1928: Von Neumann pioneers game theory

1929: Ed Link's flight simulator (evolved into Blue Box Link Trainer) [tech] [pic] [bio]

1929: Roeder's patent application describes advanced flight-sim concepts [cite]

1929: Cannon coins term 'homeostasis'

1930: Ogden and Richards' Basic English offers reduced 850-word vocabulary [website]

1930s: systematic study of industrial chemical reactions [cite]

1930-1936: LJ Comrie replaces human computing teams with mechanical calculators at UK Naval Almanac Office [cite] (Brunsvigas, Burroughs Class 16, National-Ellis 16, National Accounting Machines, Hollerith punched cards; capacity matches Babbage's plans) also used for geographical triangulation

1932: 1st ballistics calculations using Bush differential analyzer [cite] [more] (full 'firing tables' by 1936, later 'bombing tables')

each weapon-ammunition combination, each different terrain requires revised tables; complex enough to account for the fact that the projectile is a rigid body acted on by several forces and moments

1933: Georges Artsrouni and Petr Troyanskii separately apply for patents on translation-machines [cite] (electric dictionaries)

1934: US Army Air Corps adopts Link's flight trainer [info]

1935: Bush begins revised analyzer with electrical re-programmability [cite]

1930s: radiation counters [cite]

1930s: Eckert's electronic multiplier for IBM [cite]

no-date: Eckert measures electric fields and records measurements on film [cite]

1930s? Mauchly's Harmonic Analyzer for weather statistics [cite]

1933: Hooton's anthropometric study of criminals uses Hollerith machine

1934: Hazen's 'Theory of Servo-Mechanisms'

1934: John Wilbur's Simultaneous Equation Solver

1935: Zipf's "Psychobiology of Languages" calls memes 'actemes' [passim]

1935: Gallup pioneers statistical opinion-sampling

1935: IBM 805 is 1st test-scoring machine (reads pencil-marks)

1935: Ray-O-Lite target-shooting game uses photo-tube to detect lightbeam [history]

1936: Chaplin's 'Modern Times' protests automation

1936: Lovejoy's "Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea" landmark in history of ideas (proposes concept of 'unit-ideas' passim)

1936: Social Security program tracks 26M US employees using 80-column punchcards

1936: Keynes' "General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money" (macroeconomic representation-breakthru)

1936: LJ Comrie founds Scientific Computing Service [cite] helps locate German radio guidance transmitters in WW2, prepares wind graphs for sound-ranging analysis [cite]

no-date: journal "Mathematical Tables and other aids to computation" [cite]

1937: Artsrouni's electric dictionary demoed at Paris world's fair [cite]

1937: Leontief equations for economic predictions

1937: Talcott Parsons' "The Structure of Social Action" ("could not be modeled at all because of the unclarity and inconsistencies in Parsons' use of concepts" cite)

1937: Turing conceives Turing machine

1937: Aiken proposes using punchards for control (not just for data) in Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (cites Babbage's design) [cite]

1937: Japanese 'Purple' code-machine uses relays [cite]

1938: Shannon's "Symbolic Analysis of Switching Circuits"

1938-1942: Gertrude Blanch directs WPA's mathematical tables project [bio] ballistics calculations for the Army, navigation tables for the Navy, and fundamental calculations for the Manhattan Project

1930s: math tables distributed as punchcard decks [cite]

1938: advances in ballistics theory require new tables [cite]

1939: Joyce's "Finnegans Wake" (universal psychological indexing-system?) [info]

1939: Richardson's 'Generalized Foreign Politics: a study in group psychology' [site]

1939: Stibitz's Complex Number Computer for Bell Labs [history] used to design telephone circuits (amplifiers and filters)

1939: German mechanical simulation of A-4 (V2) rocket [cite]

WW2: computing teams calculate ballistics trajectories, shock wave propagation, stresses on airframes, navigation tables, efficient bombing plans, radar reflections, optimal production strategies, and likely cipher keys [cite]

Cambridge Math Lab explores high-explosives theory [cite]

Manchester group calculates heat flow in rocket tubes, a study of servomechanisms in fire control equipment, the propagation of blast waves and many other investigations [cite]

Royal Aircraft Establishment pressed for permission to install Hollerith punched card machines in their structural and mechanical engineering department, to help to solve the large sets of simultaneous equations arising from their work on structural stress in aircraft bodies [cite]

Nautical Almanac Office undertakes calculation involved in mine design [cite]

Mine Department of HMS Vernon uses human to do calculations concerning electrical circuits

1939-1944: Aiken's Mark I Relay Computer (Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator) [cite] calculates tables of Bessel functions [history]

1940: 22yo Jay Forrester works at MIT's Servomechanisms Lab [cite]

1940: Rediffusion builds 1st air-navigation trainer [cite] related developments for gunnery instruction, torpedo attack trainer, tank trainer, night vision tester, Fixed-Gun Trainer

1940: 11Sep: remote demo of Bell's Complex Number Computer witnessed by von Neumann, Wiener, Erdos, Birkhoff, Courant [cite]

1940: Atanasoff and Mauchly compare notes (applying same tech to different domains) [cite]

1941: Atanasoff-Berry Computer solves linear equations for theoretical physics [cite]

1941: electronic analog simulation of A-4 rocket [cite]

1941: 25yo Robert McNamara teaching management-via-statistics at Harvard, consults extensively for War Dept until 1945

1941: Dec: Zuse's Z3 built to solve wing-flutter design problem [cite] 1st use of floating-point representation

1942: Colossus models German code-machine [cite]

1942? Bell's M-9 Gun Director uses analog electronics [info] developed using simulations which inspired 1943's Relay Interpolator

1942: Mauchly's "The Use of Vacuum Tube Devices for Calculating" [cite] [more]

no-date: Travis mechanical-serial adding machines

no-date: analog-controls for antiaircraft guns [passim] [more]

1940s: V2-rocket guidance simulated electronically [cite]

1943: McCulloch and Pitts' "Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" [info]

1943: Zuse's S1 for fine-tuning of flying bombs [info]

1943: Bell Telephone Labs PBM-3 electronic flight trainer

1943: 02Apr: Mauchly's electronic differential analyzer proposal [cite] [history] became Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC) cost $500k [tech]

1943: 06Sep: Churchill advocates Basic English for propaganda? [cite]

1943-1945: Admiralty Computing Service investigates theory of supersonic flow, stresses in turbines, and a statistical investigation into the night vision capabilities of naval personnel [cite]

1944: Von Neumann and Morgenstern "Theory of Games and Economic Behavior"

1944: Jun: John von Neumann consults with ENIAC team on stored programming [cite]

"suggested that code selection be made by means of switches so that cable connections could remain fixed for most standard trajectory problems" [cite]
1944: Forrester undertakes design of reprogrammable analog computer for aviation design and flight simulation for Navy [cite] Airplane Stability and Control Analyzer (ASCA) [info]

1944-1951: work on EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Calculator/Computer) [cite] used mercury-quartz delay lines with 1k-words storage capacity, 1MHz, binary representation, teletype-and-magnetic-wire i/o, cost $500k [history]

"1. Exterior ballistics problems such as high altitude, solar and lunar trajectories, computation for the preparation of firing tables, and guidance control data for Ordnance weapons, including free-flight and guided missiles.
2. Interior ballistics problems, including projectile, propellant and launcher behavior, e.g., physical characteristics of solid propellants, equilibrium composition and thermodynamic properties of rocket propellants, computation of detonation waves for reflected shock waves, vibration of gun barrels and the flow of fluids in porous media.

3. Terminal ballistics problems, including nuclear, fragmentation, and penetration effects in such areas as explosion kinetics, shaped charge behavior, ignition, and heat transfer.

4. Ballistic measurement problems, including photogrammetric, ionospheric, and damping of satellite spin calculations, reduction of satellite doppler tracking data, and computation of satellite orbital elements.

5. Weapon systems evaluation problems, including antiaircraft and antimissile evaluation, war game problems, linear programming for solution of Army logistical problems, probabilities of mine detonations, and lethal area and kill probability studies of missiles."

1945: Vannevar Bush's "As We May Think" 1st knowledge interface design (inspires 20yo Englebart)

1945? McNamara and fellow whiz-kids move from US military to Ford

1945: 01Oct: start of Project RAND [history]

1945: Nov: ENIAC test-runs simulate nuclear chain-reactions [cite] neutron diffusion modeled using Monte Carlo method (in 1947?) [cite] for hydrogen bomb [cite] requires 1M punched cards for input [cite]

could store ten 10-digit decimal numbers, i/o via card-reader/card-punch

"The ENIAC was built primarily for integration of the equations of external ballistics by a step-by-step process, but it was flexible enough to be applied to a wide range of large-scale computations other than numerical integration of differential equations... weather prediction, atomic energy calculations, cosmic ray studies, thermal ignition, random number studies, wind tunnel design, and other scientific uses." [cite]
1946: Jan: Engineering Research Associates (ERA) is 'privatised' Navy crypto lab [cite]

1946: Feb: 1st public demo of ENIAC [cite] War Dept pr describes "The Uses of Computers in Industry"

1946: Jul: ENIAC simulates wing aerodynamics [cite]

1940s: punchcard autopilot demonstrated [cite]

no-date: Bell Relay Computers [cite]

1947: RAND begins recruiting social scientists [cite]

1947: 04Mar: machine-translation discussed by Weaver and Wiener [info]

1948: Wiener's Cybernetics

1948: Richardson's 'War Moods' (mathematical model of arms race) [info]

1948: 14May: RAND incorporates as nonprofit [history]

1948: Jul: US Army initiates General Research Office (later Operations Research Office) to apply operations research to tactics [cite]

1949: RAND's Handbook on the Theory of Games

1949: Wilkes' EDSAC

1949: Ed Link's F-80 jet simulator uses electronic analog computer [cite] [more]

1949: ERCO (Engineering and Research Corp) builds electronic flight sims [cite]

1949: Jay Forrester's Whirlwind [pix]

1949-1952: ORDVAC [history] can be operated semi-remotely via teletype

"Ballistic computations, such as firing and bombing tables and trajectories for guided missiles and rockets, formed forty percent of the work done by ORDVAC. Vulnerability computations and data reductions formed twenty-five percent and twenty percent respectively. Research problems formed ten percent and systems tests formed five percent of the work."
1949: BINAC (flight simulation?)

1949: Jul: Warren Weaver speculates on a universal language to aid machine translation [info]

1950: 10Jan: Reifler proposes machine translation be assisted by human 'pre-editor' markup [cite]

1950: SEAC developed by Samuel Alexander at the National Bureau of Standards

1950: Remington Rand acquires Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation

1950: Alan Turing "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"

1950: Forrester's Whirlwind research redirected to SAGE (Semi-Automated Ground Environment) [history]

1950: ENIAC finally generates numerical weather-forecast based on Bjerknes's 1910 principles

1950: 30Nov: Kaplan proposes machine-translation take into account the words before and after the target word [cite]

1950s: Amundson and Aris advocate mathematical modeling for chemical engineers [cite]

1951: Engineering Research Associates' ERA 1103 (1st to market)

1951: UNIVAC (one to Census Bureau, two to Air Materiel Command: cite)

1951: Bar-Hillel surveys potential of machine translation [info] emphasizes problem of semantic ambiguity, recommends artificial exchange-language

1951: JE Holmstrom astutely predicts failure of machine-translation dream [cite]

1951: preprogrammed plugboards added to ENIAC [cite]

1951: Cybernetics Congress held in Paris

1952: Raydac for missile testing [passim]

1952:Jun: 1st machine-translation conference at MIT [account] Bar-Hillel stresses syntactic parsing (Jay Forrester attends)

1952: Nov: Univac predicts Eisenhower landslide [cite]

1953: Shannon gives 26yo Marvin Minsky and 26yo John McCarthy summer jobs at Bell Labs

1953: RAND pioneers dynamic programming [cite]

1953: RAND study "Efficiency and Economy in Government Through New Budgeting and Accounting Procedures" [cite]

1954: 07Jan: demo of Georgetown-IBM machine translator [account] Russian to English, 250-word vocab, IBM 701

1954: GE buys a Univac for accounting, manufacturing planning and control functions [cite] Arthur Andersen handles the payroll software [cite]

1954: Link Aviation merges with General Precision Equipment [cite]

1954? magnetic drum memory

1955: 1st industrial-robot design

1955: RAND publishes book of 1M random digits [cite]

1955: Computer Usage Corporation simulates oil-flow [cite]

1955: at Aberdeen, EDVAC, ORDVAC, and ENIAC together are unable to keep up with ballistic calculations for artillery, rockets, and guided missiles [cite]

aviation design

expanding bureaucracies of the federal government-- military logistics and procurement operations of the USAF Air Material Command and the Office of Air Comptroller; records keeping of the Census Bureau, U.S. Patent Office, or the Social Security Administration

1956: Weed's Problem-Oriented Medical Record [info]

1956: Ulam's chess program Maniac I

1956: Kleene's "Representation of events in nerve nets and finite automata" [info]

1956: Institute For Mathematics And Computers In Simulation (IMACS) founded as AICA?

1956: Rockefeller funds Minsky and McCarthy's AI conference at Dartmouth

1956: Forrester switches from SAGE to business [bio] invents 'system dynamics'

1956: Aiken's "The Future of Automatic Computing Machinery" [cite]

"... if it should ever turn out that the basic logics of a machine designed for the numerical solution of differential equations coincide with the logics of a machine intended to make bills for a department store, I would regard this as the most amazing coincidence that I have ever encountered."
1956: JL Austin's "A Plea for Excuses" (ordinary language analysis) [bio] demonstrated that our 'ear' for language-use has a subtle wisdom of its own

1956: Jun: CIA funds GAT machine-translation project (General Analysis Technique, or Georgetown Automatic Translation) [info] domain-specific for organic chemistry

1956: Newell, Shaw, and Simon's Logic Theorist

1957: Newell, Shaw, and Simon's General Problem Solver

1957: RAND's IPL (Information Processing Language) [cite]

1957: RAND spins off nonprofit Systems Development Corp [cite] focused on software for SAGE [cite] larger than rest of RAND; trains 10k in compsci by 1963 [cite]

1957: RAND undertakes machine-translation project [passim]

1957: machines being developed by IBM, Sperry Rand, the Universities of Illinois and California, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the National Bureau of Standards [cite]

1957: Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures"

1957: 1st issue of 'Journal of Conflict Resolution'

1957: Sputnik galvanises US scientific priorities

1957: Jack Scruby launches War Game Digest [timeline]

1957: Sep: 1st issue of journal 'Information and Control' [tocs] [more] [most]

1958: ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) founded for long-range high-risk research [cite] ballistic missile defense, nuclear test detection, propellants, and materials

1958: NASA founded

1958: Avalon Hill publishes 1st modern military board games [timeline]

1958: EDVAC gets FPU [cite]

1958: 25Mar: 1st fly-by-wire aircraft [cite]

1958: SAGE becomes operational, uses CRT displays and lightpens [cite] (ultimate cost $10B)

no-date: CRTs generate vector-graphics using 'display list' of primitive objects (points, lines, curves) [info]

1958: Nov: McCarthy proposes 'Advice Taker' which morphs into LISP [cite]

1959: Minsky and McCarthy establish MIT AI Lab

1959: Frank Rosenblatt introduces Perceptron

1959: RAND pioneers linear programming, Simplex algorithm [cite]

1959: Samuel's checkers program

1959: computer-control of chemical plants demonstrated [cite]

1959? Project Mercury analog flight simulator for NASA astronaut training [info]

1959: Nov: Society for Computer Simulation International (SCS) (formerly the Simulation Councils, then Society for Computer Simulation)

1960: Bar-Hillel's "Demonstration of the Nonfeasibility of Fully Automatic High-Quality Translation (FAHQT)" deflates dreams of easy machine translation [info] points out that (impractical) 'universal encyclopedia' will be prerequisite

1960: Robert McNamara impressed by RAND's "The Economics of Defense in the Nuclear Age", hires 'whiz kids' (aka 'happy little hotdogs') incl Charles Hitch and Alain Enthoven (Office of Systems Analysis) [cite] implements RAND's Planning-Programming-Budgeting System (PPBS) [crit]

used measures like "maximum enemy harm inflicted per dollar spent"; rated biz-school training far above military experience

1960: RAND starts JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS) [cite]

1961: historical monograph "Electronic Computers within the Ordnance Corps" [etext]

"Almost every commodity industry such as oil, steel, and rubber is utilizing computing equipment for both scientific and commercial applications. Service industries, such as banking, transportation, and insurance have applied large scale computing systems toward the solution of problems in the fields of accounting, reservations control, and bookkeeping. Manufacturers have used computing systems for design engineering and scientific research. Many systems are being utilized for inventory and stock control. The determination of manufacturing plant location and stock parts storage are being made by linear programming methods. Electronic computers are used by the construction industry for design and location of structures and road nets. Many digital computers form a part of closed loop industrial process control systems."
1961: strategy game Diplomacy [timeline]

1961? Mortimer Adler's Great Ideas [info] (philosophical knowledge representation)

1961: IBM's Stretch supercomputers used for nuclear weapons research [cite]

1961: development of Simula begun [history] [timeline]

1961: 27Sep: IBM releases Gordon's block-based General Purpose Systems Simulator (GPSS) [cite] [history] FAA simulates weather-bulletin transmission

block-types: originate, generate, call, advance, branch, seize, release, hold, interrupt, preempt, return, enter, leave, store, queue, split, match, assign, mark, tabulate, tag, transfer, gate, write, terminate [theory]

1960s: GE innovates activity-based costing (ABC) [info]

1962: Iverson's APL optimised for matrix math

1962: ARPA starts Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) under JCR Licklider [cite]

1962: 1st industrial robots

1962: McCarthy moves to Stanford, creates Stanford AI Lab in '63

1962: RAND's SimScript language [cite] Harry Markowitz, Bernard Hausner and Herbert Karr, to simulate inventory problems

In England J. Buxton and J. Laski developed CSL, the Control and Simulation Language. Don Knuth and J. McNeley produced SOL- A symbolic Language for General Purpose System Simulation [cite]

1962: Oct: Doug Engelbart's "Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework" [etext] [history]

1963: journal 'Simulation'

1963: Tocher's "Art of Simulation"

1963: wargamers innovate algorithm for 'infectious morale' [timeline]

1963: AT&T starts using digital switches [cite]

1963: Ivan Sutherland's Sketchpad 1st object-oriented graphics editor [info] [ideas] [constraints?]

"It was not just a tool to draw things. It was a program that obeyed laws that you wanted to be held true." --Alan Kay [cite]
"It allowed users to define and draw new shapes by specifying and applying constraints to standard shapes chosen from a pallette. This system included point constraints, linkage constraints, and angular constraints and solved these constraints through an interactive relaxation technique. A user viewed an animated sequence of the constraint solution as it forced the object to transform to a desired shape." [cite]

1963: Quillian lays groundwork for semantic nets

1963: ARPA gives $2 million grant to MIT AI Lab

1963: Project Gemini analog/digital flight simulator [info]

1964: Bobrow's "Student" solves math word-problems

1964: Napoleonic wargame innovates historically accurate rules [timeline]

1964: Feb: Simula's 'process' concept emerges after multiple stacks added to Algol [cite] will be renamed 'object'

process-object states and facilities: Active, Suspended, Passive, Terminated; Activate, Reactivate, Hold, Passivate, Cancel, Wait

1964: Mar: workshop on Simulation Languages at Stanford [cite]

1964: IBM's SABRE system for airline reservations (evolved from SAGE) [cite]

1964: ADR creates semi-automated flowcharting app 'AutoFlow' for RCA [history]

1964: McNamara's Vietnam strategy based on graphs of bodycounts, observed enemy activity, weapons captured, etc (overlooks morale?)

1965: Feigenbaum takes over SAIL; Noftsker takes over MIT AI Lab

1965: Feigenbaum and Lederberg begin DENDRAL expert system project (molecular-structure analysis)

1965: wargamers introduce algorithm for positive morale [timeline]

1965: LBJ implements RAND's Planning-Programming-Budgeting System (PPBS) thruout executive branch [cite]

"In health care, systems analysis was used for the design and experimental testing of health insurance systems; in education, design and experimental testing of school voucher systems; in housing, for the analysis of rent control and the design of a housing allowance system; and in design of public systems for transportation, water supply and communications. Internationally, especially at IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis: 1972), they were used for climate modeling and other global problems... [but] most of the planning problems of most of the civilian departments, like those of higher education, were far different from those military planning problems which had proved susceptible to systems analysis."
Urban Institute was modeled after RAND and headed by RAND and Defense Department alumnus William Gorham. The Office of Economic Opportunity's Research, Program Planning and Evaluation Office was run by a succession of RAND alumni. [cite]

1966: Weizenbaum and Colby create ELIZA

1966? development of Project Apollo flight simulators begins [info]

1966: Nov: Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee (ALPAC) report "Languages and machines: computers in translation and linguistics" kills funding for machine translation [account] focuses exclusively on US govt translation of Russian documents, concludes humans are cost-effective at less than 6c/word (post-editing slower than direct translation) more than $10M had been spent so far by US govt

systems tested: Bunker-Ramo; Computer Concepts; USAF Foreign Technology Division; Euratom

1966: Simula is 1st object-oriented programming language

1966: 1st role-playing game uses WW2 setting [timeline]

1967? Ken Thompson adds regexps to QED [history] (generalised representation of string-patterns)

1967: Boole & Babbage's Problem Program Evaluator [cite] later Configuration Utilization Evaluator

1967: Greenblatt's MacHack defeats Hubert Deyfus at chess

1967: RAND statistical models predict the number and skill mix of aircraft mechanics required for unscheduled maintenance [cite]

1967: May: Simula-67 renames activities and processes as classes and objects [cite] [intro]

1967: Jef Raskin's thesis "A Hardware-Independent Computer Drawing System Using List-Structured Modeling: The Quick-Draw Graphics System" [info]

1967: Sep: Tunnicliffe [obit] proposes separation of formatting from document-content? [history]

1967: Nicholas Negroponte starts Architecture Machine Group (ArchMac) at MIT (morphs into Media Lab by 1985) [info] to create tools for collaboration between designer and computer

no-date: Alan Kay reads Sketchpad-thesis and Simula-docs while getting PhD at Utah under Evans [cite] [history]

"I suddenly realized that Simula was a programming language to do what Sketchpad did. I had never really understood what Sketchpad was. I get shivers now thinking of it. It rotated my point of view through a different dimension and nothing has been the same since. I suddenly understood the purpose of higher level languages."
1967: Nov: Conference on Application of Simulation using GPSS [cite]

1968: Evans and Sutherland founded to build graphical simulations [history] [more]

1968: Peter Toma starts Systran software project [timeline]

1968: GE 1st nuclear power-plant simulator [cite]

1968: GPE (flight sims) merges with Singer [cite]

1968: Apr: JCR Licklider and Robert Taylor's "The Computer as a Communication Device" [history]

1968: Kubrick's "2001" introduces AI to mass audience

1968: 09Dec: Doug Englebart demos "Augment/NLS" hypertext-editing sys (w/tiled windows?) [RealVid] [history] Alan Kay is present

"In Augment two windows can show two aspects of the same object. A change to an object via either window may be seen thru both windows." [cite]
1968: Dec: 2nd Conference on Application of Simulation using GPSS [cite] 700 attendees

1969: Alan Kay and Edward Cheadle design Flex system [cite] windows (non-overlapping?), tablet for input

1969: Minsky & Papert's "Perceptrons" kills funding for neural net research

1969: Schelling's "Models of Segregation" at RAND (cellular automata model) [info] [French site]

1969: crude anesthesia simulator flops [info]

1969: Apollo Lunar Module uses fly-by-wire [cite]

1969: Joel Moses writes MacSyma in Lisp [cite] (symbolic-math representation)

1969: 1st Summer Computer Simulation Conference

1969: G Spencer Brown's "Laws of Form" (boolean arithmetic) [info]

1969: IBM asks Charles Goldfarb to implement database of legal documents; need for standard markup leads to Goldfarb-Mosher-Lorie Generalized Markup Language (GML) [cite]

1969: Buckminster Fuller launches utopian 'World Game' [info]

1970: Terry Winograd's SHRDLU, minor NLP success

1970: 'Marseille Prolog' inspired by Colmerauer [cite]

1970? development of Space Shuttle simulators begins [info]

1970: US Air Force uses Systran machine-translation [cite]

1970: Pople and Myers' Internist (diagnosis of diseases)

1970: Feistel's Lucifer-cypher (leads to DES) [cite]

1970: Xerox (under CEO Peter McColough) founds Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) to develop office of the future, under George Pake and Robert Taylor [history] 50 top thinkers hired

1970: 17Mar: Stanley Rice proposes structural markup? [cite]

1970: Jun: Codd's 'relational' database design resolves messy kludges [etext]

1970: Evans and Sutherland simulate Volkswagen Beetle [cite]

1970: Emshoff's "A Computer Simulation Model of the Prisoner's Dilemma"

1970: Conway invents cellular automaton 'Life' [timeline]

1970: 15Oct: Goldfarb, Mosher, and Peterson's "Online System for Integrated Text Processing" will lead to SGML [etext]

1971: 17yo Jorn Barger's 1st behavioral sim (dorm friendships) in Fortran [passim]

I assigned a hypothetical 'potential liking' value to each pair of students in my dorm, and then generated random meeting-events in which their 'actual' liking-value gradually converged on that level.
Limits to Growth [pic source]

1972: spring: 'Limits to Growth' by Club of Rome (eco-sim) [history] [model]

1972: DARPA cancels funding for robotics at Stanford (Shakey)

1972: Cohen, March and Olson's Garbage Can Model of Organizations

1972: Xerox launches Alto project [info]

1972: Oct: Alan Kay's Smalltalk-72, for Dynabook project at Xerox [info] written in Basic, 1000 lines, ported to assembly in December

1973: Lighthill report kills AI funding in UK

1973: Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson create Dungeons and Dragons for TSR (Tactical Studies Rules) [history]

1973: LOGO funding scandal: Minsky & Papert turn MIT lab over to Winston

1973-1975: Bravo wordprocessor at Xerox by Butler Lampson, Charles Simonyi et al [info]

1974: Edward Shortliffe's thesis on MYCIN (prescribing antibiotics)

1974: Minsky reifies the 'frame' [outline]

1974? DEC's TYPESET-10 and TYPESET-11 w/video display editing and powerful macro abilities, letterspacing, kerning, etc. [info]

1975: David Canfield Smith's Pygmalion programming environment [info]

1975: John Gaffney working under John Warnock at Evans and Sutherland creates 'E&S Design System' (Forth-like language for 3D databases, leads to PostScript) [info] [more] Gaffney learned stack-oriented programming on Burroughs at U of Illinois

1975: Intl Society for Ecological Modeling (ISEM) formed in Denmark [info]

1975: Space Shuttle engine simulator [cite]

1976: DARPA cancels funding for speech understanding research

1976: Greenblatt creates first LISP machine, "CONS"

1976: Doug Lenat's AM (Automated Mathematician)

1976: Marr's "primal sketch" improves computer vision

1976: Smalltalk-76 adds inheritance, click-n-drag popup menus [paper] [Horn]

1976: Stallman writes first Emacs in TECO (screen-oriented?)

1976: Dawkins' "Selfish Gene" popularises sociobiological modelling

1976: Leibenstein's "Beyond Economic Man: A New Foundation for Microeconomics"

1976: public-key crypto [cite] (RSA algorithm 1977)

1976: 'Meteo' translates weather reports [cite]

1977? Borning's ThingLab (Smalltalk simulation app) [docs]

1977? Bob Sproull and William Newman at Xerox create device-independent page-image description scheme for dot-matrix printers called 'Press format' [cite] (leads to PostScript)

1978: Marr & Nishihara's "2.5-D sketch"

1978 (1982?): SRI's Prospector discovers molybdenum vein

1978: Patrick Hayes' "Naive Physics Manifesto"

1978: Schelling's "Micromotives and Macrobehavior" w/Residential Tipping Model

1978: Xerox begins using Systran [timeline]

1979: VisiCalc

1979? Temple of Apshai dungeon-game for Apple

1979: Bruce Artwick's 1st Flight Simulator for Apple and TRS-80 [history]

1979: Dec: Larry Tesler at Xerox PARC demos Smalltalk for Apple (at Raskin's instigation: cite) inspiring windows & mouse for Lisa&Mac

c1980: CAD-CAM (?) enjoys price drop, popularity [cite]

1980: Jorn Barger's Anti-Math [etext] (story representation language)

1980: Smalltalk-80 uses model-view-controller architecture [theory]

1980: First AAAI conference at Stanford

1980: McDermott's XCON for configuring VAX systems

1980? Chris Crawford's Energy Czar [passim]

c1980: US accounting procedures too rigid, Japanese sieze advantage [cite]

1981: May: pre-release of Matlab? (Matrix Lab) [abstract]

1981: Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman "Sociocultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach"

1981: Kazuhiro Fuchi announces Japanese Fifth Generation Project

1981: Hyprotech's Hysim, 1st chemical-process simulation software for IBM PC (later: DESIGN II, ASPEN, SIMSCI (PROII), & CHEMCAD) [cite]

1981: Cham's Phoenics for computational fluid dynamics [cite] (modules added for heating and ventilating of buildings, electronics-cooling, chemical-vapour-deposition reactors, river-oil-spill analysis, steam-condenser simulation, and cooling-tower design)

1981: Wizardry for Apple ][

1981: Chris Crawford's Eastern Front for Atari 800

1981: Zeeman's "Dynamics of the Evolution of Animal Conflicts"

1982: John Hopfield resuscitates neural nets

1982: Maynard Smith's "Evolution and the Theory of Games"

1982: Weed founds PKC for medical problem-knowledge couplers [info]

1982: Bob Sproull, Butler Lampson, and John Warnock at Xerox merge 'Press format' with 'JaM' to make Interpress (Xerox's version of PostScript) [cite]

1982: RAND begins automated war-gaming in which computer models can substitute for human players [cite]

1983: Bill Budge's Pinball Construction Set for Apple II, 1st object-oriented 8-bit? [interview] [more]

1983? Chris Crawford's demo 'Gossip' [cite]

1983: CMU's 'Soar' (State, Operator And Result) (cognitive model/AI environment) [faq]

1983: SLAM II simulation software for IBM PC [cite]

1983: MCC consortium formed under Bobby Ray Inman

1983: DARPA's Stategic Computing Initiative commits $600 million over 5 yrs

1984: Jan: Apple intros Macintosh

1984: 15Mar: 1st PostScript manual shipped [cite] [theory] [links]
1984: 25Apr: Xerox abruptly decides to release Interpress specs [cite]

1984: Austin AAAI conference launches AI into financial spotlight

1984: Doug Lenat begins Cyc project at MCC

1984: Mathworks' Matlab [quickstart]

1984: Wolfram popularises 1-D automata [cite]

1984: Axelrod's "Evolution of Cooperation" [info] [critique] inspires 'Axelrod industry'

1984: Braitenberg's "Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology"

1984: Dewdney and Jones's Core Wars

1984: Santa Fe Institute founded [website]

1984: Jun: Robert Scheifler extends W and calls it X (v1) [GooJa] [ditto] [crit]

1984-86: Corporations invest some $50 million in AI startups

no-date: Bill Budge gives up idea of 'Construction Set Construction Set' [cite]

1985: GM and Campbell's Soup find expert systems don't need LISP machines

1985? earliest netnews mention of George A Miller's WordNet [searchpattern]

1985: Chris Crawford's 'Balance of Power' [cite] (geopolitical sim)

1986: "Information and Computation" journal replaces 'Information and Control' [tocs]

1986: Reynolds' 'Boids' models flocking [website]

1986: Thinking Machines Inc introduces Connection Machine

1986: Oct: Sun introduces NeWS [cite]

1987: 'AI Winter' sets in, bottom drops out of LISP-machine market due to saturation, 386 chip brings PC speeds into competition [info]

1987: Chris Crawford's 'Trust and Betrayal' [cite]

1987: Automated Fingerprint Identification System

1987: Aug: HyperCard

1987: Text Encoding Initiative launched [cite] (semantic etext-markup)

1987: Paul Fishwick [bio] starts Simulation Digest ezine [archives] [faq]

1987: Axelrod's Evolution of Prisoner's Dilemma Strategies using Genetic Algorithm

1988: AI revenues reach $1 billion

1988: Apr: comp.simulation newsgroup formed [annc] [early posts]

1988: Jorn Barger's Solace: a textbook of romantic psychology [etext] (psych-knowledge representation)

1988? Wolfram's Mathematica

1988: Singer sells Link to CAE [cite] renamed Link Tactical Simulation

1988: Schank forced to resign from Yale and Cognitive Systems, limps to Northwestern (hires Barger: memoir)

1988: Sep: early PR from Adobe about Display Postscript [post]

1989: Jun: Wil Wright's SimCity

1989: Chris Crawford's 'Guns and Butter' [cite]

1990: Smalltalk redesigned to run under other window-managers (ObjectWorks) [cite]

1990: Chris Crawford's 'Balance of the Planet' [cite]

c1990: Human Patient Simulator [info]

1991: Be, Inc [pix]

1991: Jorn Barger's fractal-thicket indexing [faq] (post-hierarchical topical indexing)

1991: March's Organizational Code Model

1991: Tom Ray's Tierra (corewars with mutation)

1992: Alvin and Foley's Decentralized Market

1992: Anderson's ACT-R (cognitive model/AI environment) [website]

1992: Japanese Fifth Generation Project ends with a whimper

1992: Japanese Real World Computing Project begins with a big-money bang

1992: 'Socionics' movement in Germany (sociology plus informatics) [intro]

1992: Steven Levy's "Artificial Life: A Report from the Frontier Where Computers Meet Biology"

1992: Danielson's "Artificial Morality: Virtuous Robots for Virtual Games" [info]

1993: Jan: newsgroup comp.soft-sys.matlab [earliest]

1993: John Hiles' 'SimHealth' simulates healthcare policy [info] [pic] [GooJa]

1993: "Economic and Financial Modeling with Mathematica" ed Varian

1993: FinCEN AI System (FAIS) does datamining for money-laundering [info]

1993: Dec: Doom, for VGA [history]

1994? Grady Ward's Moby tools [GooJa] (semantic databases)

1994: 22Jul: Landay and Myers' SILK tool for sketching uifs [paper]

1994: "KidSim: Programming Agents Without a Programming Language" by Smith et al (based on AgentSheets: cite)

1994: Kauffman, Macready and Dickenson's NK Patch Model

1994: Gaylord and Nishidate's "Modeling Nature-- Cellular Automata Simulations with Mathematica"

1994: Visual Thinking's 'Simul8' [review] "widely used to simulate workflows in production, distribution and office environments"

typical inputs: cycle time, staff levels, arrival/order rates, average order size
typical outputs: inventory, throughput, bottleneck utilization, productivity [cite]
1995: ecological modeling newsletter ECOMOD [2 issues]

1995: AgentSheets (spreadsheets built from agents) [intro] [website]

1995: McFadzean's SimBioSys [sourcecode]

1995: "Artificial Societies: The Computer Simulation of Social Life" ed Gilbert and Conte

1995: Pollock's "Cognitive Carpentry" leads to OSCAR agent-architecture [website]

1996: Epstein and Axtell's "Growing Artificial Societies: social science from the bottom up" describes alife 'Sugarscape' [background] [book]

1996: Santa Fe's 'Swarm' simulation system [intro] [multi]

1996: online political sims "Reinventing America" (budget) and "President '96" (platforms) [Markle]

1997: Riolo's Prisoner's Dilemma Tag Model

1997: "Simulating Social Phenomena" ed Conte et al [long review]

1997: Axelrod's "The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration"

1998: Jan: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation (JASSS) founded [archives]

1998: "Simulating Society-- A Mathematica Toolkit for Modeling Socioeconomic Behavior" by Gaylord and D'Andria [review]

1998: Chris Crawford's Erasmatron story-engine [cite] (withdrawn)

1999: Ross Hammond's alife model of social ethics [info]

1999: Gumerman and Dean's alife model of Anasazi population dynamics [info] [citeseer]

1999: MLS toolkit for social simulations in Lisp-Stat [intro]

no-date: BioNumerik models drug-interactions on Crays [cite]

2000: human genome mostly sequenced

2000: IBM launches life-sciences division for bioinformatics [cite]

2001: Apr: Jorn Barger launches Internet Timelines Project (history representation) [info]

2002: Interoperable Informatics Infrastructure Consortium's Life Science Identifier [cite]

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