The ability to remember the past and imagine the future can significantly affect a person's decisions in life. Scientists refer to the brain’s ability to think about the past, present, and future as "chronesthesia," or mental time travel, although little is known about which parts of the brain are responsible for these conscious experiences. In a new study, researchers have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of mental time travel and better understand the nature of the mental time in which the metaphorical "travel" occurs.
nothing more beautiful than the northern sky_ Roman Sentjin (1971) har blivit något av en frontfigur för den unga litteraturströmning som går under benämningen ”den nya realismen”.Sergej Sjargunov (1980) som vann debutpriset postsovjetiska människan att upptäcka kärleken och döden på nytt.
Yhdysvallat painosti viime vuonna Ruotsia kasvattamaan panostuksiaan Afganistan-operaatioon, paljastavat Wikileaks-sivuston vuotamat diplomaattiviestit. Yritys tuotti tulosta, sillä Ruotsin satsaukset Isaf-joukkoihin nousevat arvioiden mukaan tänä vuonna 150 miljoonaan euroon, mikä on noin 50 prosenttia enemmän kuin edellisvuonna.
Heinäkuulle 2009 päivätyssä viestissä Yhdysvaltain Tukholman-lähetystö ehdotti, että paras hetki painostaa Ruotsia olisi syyskuu, koska silloin ulko- ja puolustusministeriö valmistelivat Afganistan-esityksiään valtiopäiville.
Toisessa viestissä ehdotettiin, että puolustusministeri Sven Tolgforsia kannattaisi imarrella Ruotsin toiminnasta Afganistanissa hänen Washingtonin-vierailullaan heinäkuussa 2009.
Viestien mukaan puolustushallinnon korkea virkamies oli antanut amerikkalaisille vihjeitä siitä, miten Ruotsin johtoon voi vaikuttaa.
Analyyttinen ja synteettinen ovat filosofisia käsitteitä, jotka viittaavat lauseen totuuden perustaan. Lause on analyyttisesti tosi jos ja vain jos se on tosi ainoastaan lauseen itsensä sisältämien elementtien perusteella.
Wibergin tutkija ryhmä lähetti kuluneen syksyn aikana 230 viranomaiselle keksityllä nimellä sähköpostikyselyn, jossa pyydettiin tietoa viraston ylimmän johtajan palkkauksesta ja työsuhde-eduista. Tiedot ovat julkisia, ja ne pitäisi antaa pyytäjälle ilman aiheetonta viivytystä. Valtaosa reagoi ylimielisesti. *23 vastasi
Lataan kuvaa... Leif Rosas Autojen pysäköintiä katujen varsille on Helsingin kaupungin mukaan nyt syytä välttää.
* Autojen pysäköintiä katujen varsille on Helsingin kaupungin mukaan nyt syytä välttää.|Leif Rosas
Helsinki julisti sunnuntaina erityistoimia, joilla yritetään puhdistaa kantakaupunki lumesta. Toimista päättivät apulaiskaupunginjohtaja Pekka Sauri, kaupungininsinööri Raimo K. Saarinen ja Staran toimitusjohtaja Mauri Suuperko. .
Ensimmäiseksi lumi lähtee joukkoliikennekaduilta. Niille pysäköidyt autot siirretään tarvittaessa ja palautetaan näköetäisyydelle.
Siirroista ei varoiteta vuorokautta aiemmin kuten tavallisesti.
Työmatkalaisille suositellaan joukkoliikennettä. Näin siksi, että katujen varsille pysäköidyt autot hidastavat ja hankaloittavat lumen poistamista.
Joukkoliikenne on kaupungin mukaan hyvä vaihtoehto, koska luvassa ei ole liikennettä puurouttavaa keliä vaan poutaista pakkassäätä.
Autoja ei toivota parkkiin katujen varsille, ja pahimman lumitilanteen aikana auton voisi viedä myös pysäköintihalliin, kaupunki suosittelee.
Rakennusvirasto selvittää voisiko toreja ja aukioita ottaa tilapäisiksi pysäköintipaikoiksi.
Jos auto pysäköidään kadun varrelle, pitäisi raitiovaunuille jättää tarpeeksi tilaa. Suoralla raitiovaunukiskon ja auton väliin tarvitaan 80 senttiä, kaarteessa 1,4 metriä.
Ratikkaliikenne häiriintyi noin 70 kertaa viime viikolla siksi, että autoja oli pysäköity liian lähelle kiskoja.
Kolmosen raitiovaunu joutui sunnuntaina iltapäivällä poikkeusreitille siksi, että auto oli pysäköity väärin Porthaninkadun mäessä. Hieman myöhemmin kolmoset myöhästyivät samasta syystä, mutta tällä kertaa Fredrikinkadulla.
Kaupunki kertoo valvovansa, että kiinteistöt poistavat lumen raitiovaunu- ja bussipysäkeiltä.
Pois vietävä lumi yritetään varastoida mahdollisimman lähelle, ja kantakaupungista etsitään uusia lumenkaatopaikkoja maalta tai merenrannoilta.
Buffy it is, The putins dog. vendetta it is, the western anonymous site ☼ “ In the hacker imagery, people are presented as eating, fondling and making love to technological artefacts. The close relationship between technology and the human body would soon foreshadow notions of contamination, pain and agony. A History of Virulence: The Body and Computer Culture in the 1980s (part 2 – with illustrations) : Antonio A. Casilli :: BodySpaceSociety
SM (Space Migration) + I² (intelligence increase) + LE (Life extension)'The United States Is Behind This Deliberate Leak' A young Iranian boy stood behind his flag while awaiting the arrival of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad at Tehran's airport earlier this year. Zoom REUTERS
A young Iranian boy stood behind his flag while awaiting the arrival of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad at Tehran's airport earlier this year.
Iran has its own special take on the diplomatic cables recently published by WikiLeaks. Presidential Advisor Esfandiar Rahim Mashai assumes that the United States government leaked the documents itself. In an interview with SPIEGEL ONLINE, he says that Washington's goal is to play off the governments in the Middle East against one other.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Have you read what Washington's ambassadors in your neighboring Arab countries write about Iran?
Esfandiar Rahim Mashai: I've been traveling a lot recently, so I haven't had a chance yet. But our experts are examining the disclosures very intensively and have reported everything to me.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Are you surprised by the clarity with which some Gulf States, as well as Egypt, call upon the United States to stop Tehran's nuclear ambitions?
Mashai: These documents are not authentic. The national interests of the United States and its allies are behind this. They see the world through their eyes, pursue their own goals, and draw the conclusions that suit their purposes.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: What are the intentions of the United States, in your view?
Mashai: America wants to portray itself as the leader of the world, as master of the destinies of nations. It wants to play off the regimes in the region against one another. It wants the world to believe that we are divided. It wants to legitimize its presence and influence in the region.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: But the diplomatic reports were published against Washington's will and are damaging to the United States. The WikiLeaks disclosures are not a State Department PR campaign.
Mashai: Are you sure about that? How, then, did WikiLeaks gain access to the documents?
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Presumably through a US Army private who had access to a central government database and has since been arrested.
Mashai: Do you believe that? Then you must be very naïve indeed. No, the United States is behind this deliberate leak. The Americans are trying to paint the world in black and white. They underscore the differences among nations and want to show everyone that peace is only possible in cooperation with them.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Do you question the authenticity of the more than 250,000 documents?
Mashai: I don't want to get into individual documents and their authenticity. But I have no doubt that a US government plan is behind this disclosure. When someone wants to suggest something, they include fake information with real information so as to create a certain impression. That's why each country has to analyze the documents that relate to it, which is what our experts in Tehran are doing now.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: In other words, you do take the embassy reports very seriously.
Mashai: We are only examining them to figure out the Americans' tricks.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: You refuse to believe that your neighbors fear Iran?
Mashai: That's what we read in the reports. But it's the United States that is trying to instill fear of Iran in these countries. No one is afraid of us, nor should they be. But one can also see these reports as evidence of how much pressure the United States exerts on some governments. When that happens, things are said that the other party wants to hear.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Is that how you explain the statement by the Saudi Arabian king, who demands that the United States "cut off the head of the (Iranian) snake?"
Mashai: That isn't the language of the Saudi Arabian king. In their reports, the US ambassadors can claim that anyone said anything. Our friends in the region are denying everything.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: … because they don't want to upset Tehran any further.
Mashai: They don't deny the mistakes they've made in the past, such as when they supported Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein in his war against us. And we generously forgave them. Even if one of our friends had said something unfortunate, the Iranian nation would forgive them.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: So, in your view, the fear of your nuclear program is pure fantasy on the part of the US ambassadors in the region?
Mashai: We want to use nuclear energy in a peaceful way. Our neighbors know that. If they fear anything, it's a military strike against Iran by the United States and its allies. If they are afraid, then it's the result of American and Zionist propaganda.
SPIEGEL ONLINE: Are your fellow Iranians able to view the WikiLeaks disclosures on the Internet, or is the site blocked, like so many others in Iran?
Mashai: Anyone can access the site. Why should be block it? We are a great nation that doesn't have a problem with such disclosures. Our nation is smart enough to see through this campaign.
The interview was conducted by Dieter Bednarz syyn, miksi yksikään kansanedustaja ei saapunut itsenäisyyspäivänä Heikki Hurstin köyhien linnanjuhliin. Hursti ja monet kansalaiset ehtivät ihmettelemään, eikö kansanedustajilla ole aikaa köyhien itsenäisyysjuhlalle. kyse oli siitä, että Hurstin kutsut eivät välittyneet perille.
Paljastui, että kutsut olivat lähetetty sähköpostipalautelaatikkoon, josta ei ole mitään jakelua kansanedustajille.
New Economy | Social Investment | People Power Time for a New Theory of Money By understanding that money is simply credit, we unleash it as a powerful tool for our communities. Document Actions
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by Ellen Brown posted Oct 28, 2010
Money, photo by Earl
Photo by Earl
The reason our financial system has routinely gotten into trouble, with periodic waves of depression like the one we’re battling now, may be due to a flawed perception not just of the roles of banking and credit but of the nature of money itself. In our economic adolescence, we have regarded money as a “thing”—something independent of the relationship it facilitates. But today there is no gold or silver backing our money. Instead, it’s created by banks when they make loans (that includes Federal Reserve Notes or dollar bills, which are created by the Federal Reserve, a privately-owned banking corporation, and lent into the economy). Virtually all money today originates as credit, or debt, which is simply a legal agreement to pay in the future. Money as Relationship
In an illuminating dissertation called “Toward a General Theory of Credit and Money” in The Review of Austrian Economics, Mostafa Moini, Professor of Economics at Oklahoma City University, argues that money has never actually been a “commodity” or “thing.” It has always been merely a “relation,” a legal agreement, a credit/debit arrangement, an acknowledgment of a debt owed and a promise to repay. In the payment system of ancient Sumeria, prices of major commodities were fixed by the government. Interest was also fixed and invariable, making economic life very predictable.
The concept of money-as-a-commodity can be traced back to the use of precious metal coins. Gold is widely claimed to be the oldest and most stable currency known, but this is not actually true. Money did not begin with gold coins and evolve into a sophisticated accounting system. It began as an accounting system and evolved into the use of precious metal coins. Money as a “unit of account” (a tally of sums paid and owed) predated money as a “store of value” (a commodity or thing) by two millennia; the Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations using these accounting-entry payment systems lasted not just hundreds of years (as with some civilizations using gold) but thousands of years. Their bank-like ancient payment systems were public systems—operated by the government the way that courts, libraries, and post offices are operated as public services today.
In the payment system of ancient Sumeria, goods were given a value in terms of weight and were measured in these units against each other. The unit of weight was the “shekel,” something that was not originally a coin but a standardized measure. She was the word for barley, suggesting the original unit of measure was a weight of grain. This was valued against other commodities by weight: So many shekels of wheat equaled so many cows equaled so many shekels of silver, etc. Prices of major commodities were fixed by the government; Hammurabi, Babylonian king and lawmaker, has detailed tables of these. Interest was also fixed and invariable, making economic life very predictable.
Grain was stored in granaries, which served as a form of “bank.” But grain was perishable, so silver eventually became the standard tally representing sums owed. A farmer could go to market and exchange his perishable goods for a weight of silver, and come back at his leisure to redeem this market credit in other goods as needed. But it was still simply a tally of a debt owed and a right to make good on it later. Eventually, silver tallies became wooden tallies became paper tallies became electronic tallies. The Credit Revolution
The problem with gold coins was that they could not expand to meet the needs of trade. The revolutionary advance of medieval bankers was that they succeeded in creating a flexible money supply, one that could keep pace with a vigorously expanding mercantile trade. They did this through the use of credit, something they created by allowing overdrafts in the accounts of their depositors. Under what came to be called “fractional reserve” banking, the bankers would issue paper receipts called banknotes for more gold than they actually had. Their shipping clients would sail away with their wares and return with silver or gold, settling accounts and allowing the bankers’ books to balance. The credit thus created was in high demand in the rapidly expanding economy; but because it was based on the presumption that money was a “thing” (gold), the bankers had to engage in a shell game that periodically got them into trouble. They were gambling that their customers would not all come for their gold at the same time; but when they miscalculated, or when people got suspicious for some reason, there would be a run on the banks, the financial system would collapse, and the economy would sink into depression. Like Jimmy Stewart’s beleaguered savings and loan in It’s a Wonderful Life, the banks are “borrowing short to lend long,” and if the money market suddenly dries up, the banks will be in trouble.
Today, paper money is no longer redeemable in gold, but money is still perceived as a “thing” that has to “be there” before credit can be advanced. Banks still engage in money creation by advancing bank credit, which becomes a deposit in the borrower’s account, which becomes checkbook money. In order for their outgoing checks to clear, however, the banks have to borrow from a pool of money deposited by their customers. If they don’t have enough deposits, they have to borrow from the money market or other banks.
As British author Ann Pettifor observes: "the banking system... has failed in its primary purpose: to act as a machine for lending into the real economy. Instead the banking system has been turned on its head, and become a borrowing machine."
The banks suck up cheap money and return it as more expensive money, if they return it at all. The banks control the money spigots and can deny credit to small players, who wind up defaulting on their loans, allowing the big players with access to cheap credit to buy up the underlying assets very cheaply.
It's a Wonderful Life, screenshot
The bank run scene from It's a Wonderful Life
That’s one systemic flaw in the current scheme. Another is that the borrowed money backing the bank’s loans usually comes from shorter-term loans. Like Jimmy Stewart’s beleaguered savings and loan in It’s a Wonderful Life, the banks are “borrowing short to lend long,” and if the money market suddenly dries up, the banks will be in trouble. That is what happened in September 2008: According to Rep. Paul Kanjorski, speaking on C-Span in February 2009, there was a $550 billion run on the money markets. Securitization: “Monetizing” Loans Not with Gold But with Homes
The money markets are part of the “shadow banking system,” where large institutional investors park their funds. The shadow banking system allows banks to get around the capital and reserve requirements now imposed on depository institutions by moving loans off their books.
Large institutional investors use the shadow banking system because the conventional banking system guarantees deposits only up to $250,000, and large institutional investors have much more than that to move around on a daily basis. The money market is very liquid, and what protects it in place of FDIC insurance is that it is “securitized,” or backed by securities of some sort. Often, the collateral consists of mortgage-backed securities (MBS), the securitized units into which American real estate has been sliced and packaged, sausage-fashion.
Like with the gold that was lent many times over in the 17th century, the same home may be pledged as “security” for several different investor groups at the same time. This is all done behind an electronic curtain called MERS (an acronym for Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems, Inc.), which has allowed houses to be shuffled around among multiple, rapidly changing owners while circumventing local recording laws.
Foreclosure, photo by woodley wonderworksMaking Sense of the Foreclosure Mess Why are mortgage holders suspending foreclosures? And what will happen to homeowners?
As in the 17th century, however, the scheme has run into trouble when more than one investor group has tried to foreclose at the same time. And the securitization model has now crashed against the hard rock of hundreds of years of state real estate law, which has certain requirements that the banks have not met—and cannot meet, if they are to comply with the tax laws for mortgage-backed securities. (For more on this, see here.)
The bankers have engaged in what amounts to a massive fraud, not necessarily because they started out with criminal intent (although that cannot be ruled out), but because they have been required to in order to come up with the commodities (in this case real estate) to back their loans. It is the way our system is set up: The banks are not really creating credit and advancing it to us, counting on our future productivity to pay it off, the way they once did under the deceptive but functional façade of fractional reserve lending. Instead, they are vacuuming up our money and lending it back to us at higher rates. In the shadow banking system, they are sucking up our real estate and lending it back to our pension funds and mutual funds at compound interest. The result is a mathematically impossible pyramid scheme, which is inherently prone to systemic failure. The Public Credit Solution We as a community can create our own credit, without having to engage in the sort of impossible pyramid scheme in which we’re always borrowing from Peter to pay Paul at compound interest.
The flaws in the current scheme are now being exposed in the major media, and it may well be coming down. The question then is what to replace it with. What is the next logical phase in our economic evolution?
Credit needs to come first. We as a community can create our own credit, without having to engage in the sort of impossible pyramid scheme in which we’re always borrowing from Peter to pay Paul at compound interest. We can avoid the pitfalls of privately-issued credit with a public credit system, a system banking on the future productivity of its members, guaranteed not by “things” shuffled around furtively in a shell game vulnerable to exposure, but by the community itself.
The simplest public credit model is the electronic community currency system. Consider, for example, one called “Friendly Favors.” The participating Internet community does not have to begin with a fund of capital or reserves, as is now required of private banking institutions. Nor do members borrow from a pool of pre-existing money on which they pay interest to the pool’s owners. They create their own credit, simply by debiting their own accounts and crediting someone else’s. If Jane bakes cookies for Sue, Sue credits Jane’s account with 5 “favors” and debits her own with 5. They have “created” money in the same way that banks do, but the result is not inflationary. Jane’s plus-5 is balanced against Sue’s minus-5, and when Sue pays her debt by doing something for someone else, it all nets out. It is a zero-sum game.
Community currency systems can be very functional on a small scale, but because they do not trade in the national currency, they tend to be too limited for large-scale businesses and projects. If they were to grow substantially larger, they could run up against the sort of exchange rate problems afflicting small countries. They are basically barter systems, not really designed for advancing credit on a major scale. By turning banking into a public utility, profits generated by the community can be returned to the community.
The functional equivalent of a community currency system can be achieved using the national currency, by forming a publicly owned bank. By turning banking into a public utility operated for the benefit of the community, the virtues of the expandable credit system of the medieval bankers can be retained, while avoiding the parasitic exploitation to which private banking schemes are prone. Profits generated by the community can be returned to the community.
A public bank that generates credit in the national currency could be established by a community or group of any size, but as long as we have capital and reserve requirements and other stringent banking laws, a state is the most feasible option. It can easily meet those requirements without jeopardizing the solvency of its collective owners.
NYSEThe Growing Movement for Publicly Owned Banks
State-owned banks could be a way for states to bypass Wall Street, balance their budgets, and get local economies moving.
For capital, a state bank could use some of the money stashed in a variety of public funds. This money need not be spent. It can just be shifted from the Wall Street investments where it is parked now into the state’s own bank. There is precedent establishing that a state-owned bank can be both a very sound and a very lucrative investment. The Bank of North Dakota, currently the nation’s only state-owned bank, is rated AA and recently returned a 26 percent profit to the state. A decentralized movement has been growing in the United States to explore and implement this option. [For more information, see public-banking.com.]
We have emerged from the financial crisis with new clarity: Money today is simply credit. When the credit is advanced by a bank, when the bank is owned by the community, and when the profits return to the community, the result can be a functional, efficient, and sustainable system of finance.
Ellen BrownEllen Brown wrote this article for YES! Magazine, a national, nonprofit media organization that fuses powerful ideas with practical actions. Ellen is an attorney and the author of eleven books, including Web of Debt: The Shocking Truth About Our Money System and How We Can Break Free. Her websites are webofdebt.com, ellenbrown.com, and public-banking.com.
* Whose Bank? Public Investment, Not Private Debt: The public bank concept is gaining ground on the state level, attracting proponents across the political spectrum. * New Economy, New Ways to Do Finance: As mega-finance crumbles, many farsighted individuals are putting their money in enterprises and financial institutions that benefit working Americans and the places they live. * Move Your Money and Save: Big banks don't just undermine local economies—they're bad for your wallet, too.
The Solntsevskaya bratva have many business interests with legitimate business groups. Law enforcement believe in addition to offering these groups 'protection' the gang also assist the businesses when it comes to not-so-legal matters.
Though it is considered one of the most powerful Russian organized crime groups, it is difficult for law enforcement to accurately measure the strength and influence of the family, since many racketeers declaring themselves 'solntsevskaya' only do so to be feared and respected, and are not actually affiliated with the organization, and there is also frequent internal fighting within the group.
ountries That visited wikileaks most Pakistan Italia, mutta heti seuraavana eli kolmantena tulee Suomi, joka on asukasluvultaan huomattavasti kahta kärkimaata pienempi. Israelissa, Virossa ja Turkissa. Kymmenen parhaan listalle pääsevät vielä Yhdistyneet Arabiemiraatit, Norja, Algeria ja Puola.
For many, at least outside of the US Congress, net neutrality is an important issue—in a nutshell Wikileaks began on Sunday November 28th publishing 251,287 leaked United States embassy cables, the largest set of confidential documents ever to be released into the public domain. The documents will give people around the world an unprecedented insight into US Government foreign activities.Late Talk i want to be free with mind --no- love
David Letterman: Harrison Ford, Cee-Lo Green. Jay Leno: Arnold Schwarzenegger, David baker, N.E.R.D. Jimmy Kimmel: Neil Diamond. Jimmy Fallon: Scarlett Johansson, Chris Morris, Toots & the Maytals. Craig Ferguson: Tom Selleckrecord cold november week
The Dynamic Universe theory is a holistic description of the observable physical reality. It is a unifying theory converting spacetime in variable coordinates into dynamic space in absolute coordinates. The Dynamic Universe theory relies on an overall zero-energy balance in space and the conservation of the total energy in interactions in space. Relativity in DU space means relativity of local to the whole — relativity is a measure of the locally available share of the total energy in space. Atomic clocks in fast motion or in high gravitational field in DU space do not lose time because of slower flow of time but because they use part of their total energy for motion and local gravitation in space.
Predictions for local phenomena in DU space are essentially the same as the corresponding predictions given by the special and general theories of relativity. At extremes – at cosmological distances and in the vicinity of local singularities in space – differences in the predictions become meaningful. Reasons for the differences can be traced back to the differences in the basic assumptions and in the structures of the two approaches.
Whole in the Dynamic Universe is not composed as the sum of elementary units — the multiplicity of elementary units is a result of diversification of whole.
Magellan may not be the head honcho when it comes to standalone PNDs in N, but that's not stopping the outfit from keeping its iOS app up to snuff. With TomTom, Navigon and Garmin all introducing iOS 4-compatible apps over the past few months, Magellan has finally done likewise -- version 1.3 of the app now enables navigation to occur in the background, meaning that hone 3GS and iPho 4 still hear turn-by-turn guidance while using another application. Better still, real-time traffic information is provided free of charge through NAVTEQ, alerting motorists to accidents, traffic flow and the nearest ice cream truck. If you've already sunk c , now's a solid check -- otherwise, you can hit the source links for a trifecta of versions .
You could never describe as complex a creature as Mes Mei in two words, but if you were restricted to only two, ‘polite’ and ‘smart’ would be a decent start. The star of Top Gar and Oz is a true English gentleman, with an inquisitive mind and a razor-sharp wit, who appears in the flesh pretty much as you see him: self-effacing, mild, inquisitive, funny and more -than a little shy*.
oranges ready to drink from the yard, wienermeat eatable and something *high - ly undiscribable growing in a flowerpot or Rauhanpuolustajien hinta 25 e + postikulut
Epäonnistuttuaan saamaan YK:n tukea sodalleen Irakissa Bushin hallinto hylkäsi YK:n ”yhdentekevänä”. Juututtuaan Irakissa suohon maan valloituksen ja sen miehittämisen kanssa Washington vaihtoi taktiikkaansa ja ryhtyi vaatimaan YK:ta palaamaan maahan ja antamaan USA:n rakentamalle liittoumalle kansainvälisen lain siunaus.
Tulilinjalla YK -teos kertoo kuinka USA:n valta-asema uhkaa YK:n viimeisiäkin demokraattisia rakenteita. Kirja on täynnä kulissien takaisia juonitteluja YK:sta ja antaa lukijalleen syventävän kuvan nykypäivän YK:ta kohtaavista ongelmista.
Phyllis Bennis esittää myös uusia keinoja 60-vuotiaan järjestön demokratisoimiseen, luoden toivoa siitä että YK voisi yhä täyttää vuoden 1945 peruskirjassaan annetun valan ”pelastaa tulevat sukupolvet sodan kauhuilta”.
"Hyvin vaikuttavaa, määrätietoista, merkittävää ja tarpeellista nykypäivänä... Phyllis Bennisin kirja on ehdottomasti paras, akateemisin ja myös luettavin analyysi siitä, kuinka Yhdysvaltojen politiikka ja toimet Washingtonissa ja YK:ssa ovat kehittyneet viimeisen puolen vuosisadan aikana."
Pyhän Kosmaan 1714 - kautta tapahtui paljon ihmeitä hänen elinaikanaan. Apua vaivoihinsa häneltä etsivät niin kristityt kuin turkkilaiset. Näitten ihmeitten takia turkkilaiset kansanihmiset ja -johtajatkin kunnioittivat ja monesti myös suojelivat pyhää Kosmasta.
Kreikassa pyhä Kosmas tunnetaan hyvin myös profetioistaan. Kuuluisia ovat mm. hänen ennustuksensa aikamme teknisistä laitteista, kuten autoista, televisiosta ja puhelimesta. Niistä hän sanoi:
— Tulette näkemään aukioilla vaunuja, jotka ilman hevosia juoksevat jänistäkin nopeammin. — Paholainen menee laatikon sisään ja sieltä se huutaa ja sen sarvet ovat kattotiilten päällä. — Tulee aika, jolloin eräänlainen lanka vyöttää koko maailman. — Tulee aika, jolloin ihmiset puhuvat yhdestä kaukaisesta paikasta toiseen, niin kuin he olisivat viereisissä huoneissa, kuten esimerkiksi Konstantinopolista Venäjälle.
The adverted notion of belief is supposed to be robust, in the sense that S believes that only when all of S’s doxastic alternatives satisfy . There is, of course, amore minimal sense of belief, according to which S believes that iff S accepts (where, if is truth-apt, S accepts only when all of S’s doxastic alternatives satisfy , otherwise—say, if = murder is wrong—S accepts iff, e.g., S disapproves of murder).4 If ∈ K, noncognitivism about K will demand rejecting schema (1) on a robust understanding of belief, but will permit accepting it, on the more minimal understanding.
novel development of expressivism as a proposal about the meaning of normative language. discharge expressivism’s linguistic commitments (particularly as they relate to the Frege- Geach problem), while avoiding some pitfalls of earlier attempts. We also try to characterize how, precisely, expressivism’s commitments regarding the meaning and communicative function of normative language are to be understood— how, by the same token, expressivism’s critics (with not infrequent assistance from expressivists themselves) may be misinterpreting those commitments. We thus gain a fuller understanding of the empirical content of expressivist treatments of meaning—within, but also outside of, the normative realm. Show me how you do it in the factual realm, and I’ll mimic you in the normative realm. --------------Expressivism, as a view about the meaning of normative sentences, incurs an array of linguistic commitments. These have been the subject of an enormous amount of attention in the meta-ethical literature, a good deal of it critical. Some critics have observed that expressivists’ attempts to discharge them are wanting. Others argue, more strongly, that they cannot be discharged in any sort of satisfactory way. This essay is a defense, of sorts, of expressivism in meta-ethics, primarily against the latter critic’s attacks. It comprises a novel development of expressivism as a proposal about the semantics and pragmatics (and, more generally, meaning) of normative language. Our goal is to show, by example, how to discharge the linguistic commitments of expressivism, while avoiding the pitfalls of earlier attempts to do the same. In demonstrating the possibility of a reasonably attractive linguistic development of the expressivist meta-ethic, we will also try to characterize how, precisely, expressivism’s commitments regarding the meaning and communicative function of normative language ought to be understood—how, by the same token, expressivism’s critics (with not infrequent assistance from expressivists themselves) may bemisinterpreting those commitments. In addition to an attractive development of an expressivist view about normative sentence-meaning, then, we aim to gain a fuller, and more precise, understanding of the empirical content of expressivist treatments of meaning—within, but also outside of, the normative realm.
I think the whole "unanswerable questions" idea is a big contributorTšetšeenit muuttivat alueelleen Pohjois-Kaukasiaan joskus 600-luvulla tai ennen sitä jostain etelästä. Islamin vaikutus levisi alueelle. Tšetšeenien hallintotapa oli demokraattinenkenen mukaan?, varsinaisia päälliköitä ei ollut. Maa oli hyvin metsäinen, mikä helpotti alueen puolustusta. Tšetšeeniheimojen vastarintaa Venäjää vastaan johti 1834 imaamin arvonimen ottanut kansallissankari Šamil, joka loi ensimmäisen valtiomuodostelman alueelle. Hänet vangittiin ja karkotettiin 1859, jolloin Tšetšenia lasketaan liitetyksi Venäjän keisarikuntaan. Sodan myötä jopa 500 000 kaukasialaista karkotettiin Turkkiin ja Lähi-itään, ja tilalle muutti armenialaisia ja kasakoita. 80 vuotta myöhemmin siirrettiin jälleen lähes koko väestö, 425 000 tšetšeeniä ja inguušia, maanpakoon Kazakstaniin. Yli neljännes tšetšeeneistä kuoli karkotuksen aikana.Godâ€™s