perjantai 27. marraskuuta 2009

Quantum mechanics holds that any given particle has a chance of being in a whole range of locations and, in a sense, occupies all those places at once

↶↩↪↷☀★↱HДPPIИΞSS↶↩ ↪↷☀★↱⌇☀★↱IS Д ⌇☀★↱⌇⌇ЩДЯM⌇ ⌇ ☀★↱SPДCΞSHIP ⌇☀★↱↶↩↪↷↶↩↪↷↷ ↶↩↪↷• • • • ◊㎡•°• • • •

There is nothing specifically social about building models of the world. The brain does this when we are alone and unobserved, as it learns about the world and creates perceptions and beliefs. On the basis of those beliefs, our brain predicts what should happen next and decides if the sensory signals it then receives provide evidence for or against that belief. When it finds errors in its predictions, the brain acts as a hypothesis engine, continually updating our beliefs about the world. Think of the unexpected sensations when you lift a coffee pot you thought was full and it turns out to be empty.

A major aim of the Interacting Minds project is to understand the ability to compare, exchange and jointly create models of the world

There is no king or queen bee distinguished by size or figure or beauty and variety in the human hive. No man has yet produced any revelation from heaven in his favor, any divine communication to govern his fellow men. ..c here for a reason.
Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis), is a term applied to the study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant one other time.

tiistai 24. marraskuuta 2009

"how can the events in space and time which take place within the spatial boundary of a living organism be accounted for by physics and chemistry?’

maanantai 16. marraskuuta 2009

the duty of an Islamic community not just to collect zakat but to distribute it fairly as well. Zakat is sometimes refered to as sadaqah and its plural, sadaqat. Generally the sharing of wealth is called zakat, whereas the sadqat could mean the sharing of wealth as well sharing of happiness among God's creation, such as saying kind words, smiling at someone, taking care of animals or environments, etc. Zakat or sadqah is worship as means of spiritual purification.

There is no disagreement among Muslims about the obligatory nature of zakat throughout the Islamic history, denying Zakat equals denying the Islamic faith. The Muslim jurists differ on many details of zakat, each has his own opinion and arguments. These difference of opinion may include rate, the exemptions, the kinds of wealth that are zakatable. Zakatable is type of excess wealth, or assets that are the subject of zakat according to Islamic examples and directives, For example, some scholars consider the wealth of children and insane individals zakatable, others don't. Some scholars consider all agricultural products zakatable, others restrict zakat to specific kinds only. Some consider debts zakatable others don't. Similar differences exist for business assets and women's jewelry. Some require certain minimum nisab for zakatability, some don't. etc. The same kind of differences also exist about the disbursement of zakat.[2]

There is an agreement among Muslim jurists that zakat is obligatory on the Muslim who has reached puberty, who is sane, who is free, and who owns the minimum assigned, nisab. Disagree on whether it is compulsory on the funds (liquid possessions) of the child and the insane individual. Muslims jurists have agreed that zakat, as an obligation of Islam, is not required from non-Muslims.

The Qur'an does not provide the definition of zakatable wealth nor does it provide the required percentages in zakat. It is left to Sunnah to give, by example or by directives. It must be realized, however, that the Qur'an mentions a few kinds of zakatable possessions (assets), such as gold and silver, crops and fruits, earnings of trade and other business enterprises and what is drawn from beneath the earth (natural resources).

Muslims fulfill this religious obligation by giving a fixed percentage of their surplus wealth. Zakat has been paired with such a high sense of righteousness that it is often placed on the same level of importance as offering Salat.[3] Muslims see this process also as a way of purifying themselves from their greed and selfishness and also safeguarding future business.[4] In addition, Zakat purifies the person who receives it because it saves him from the humiliation of begging and prevents him from envying the rich.[5] Because it holds such a high level of importance the "punishment" for not paying when able is very severe. In the 2nd edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam it states, "...the prayers of those who do not pay zakat will not be accepted".[6]

Part of a series on the Islamic creed:

Five Pillars (Sunni)

Shahādah - Profession of faith
Ṣalāt - Prayers
Zakāh - Paying of alms (giving to the poor)
Ṣawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca

Six articles of belief (Sunni)

Tawhīd - Oneness
Prophets and Messengers in Islam
Islamic holy books
The Last Judgment

Principles of the Religion (Twelver)

Tawhīd - Oneness
‘Adalah - Justice
Nubuwwah - Prophethood
Imāmah - Leadership
Qiyamah - Day of Judgement

Practices of the Religion (Twelver)

Ṣalāt - Prayers
Ṣawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Zakāh - Tithes
Khums - One-fifth tax
Jihad - Struggle
Commanding what is just
Forbidding what is evil
Tawallā' - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt
Tabarrá - Disassociating Ahl al-Bayt's enemies

Seven Pillars (Ismaili)

Walāyah - Guardianship
Ṭawhid - Oneness of God
Ṣalāt - Prayers
Zakāh - Purifying religious dues
Ṣawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Jihad - Struggle


Kharijite Sixth Pillar of Islam.

There are two categories of charities in Islam - obligatory and voluntary


  • Zakat on gold, silver currency and jewelry
  • Zakat on cash or its equivalent such as bonds, shares of joint companies etc.
  • Zakat on rented buildings, plants (factory), and fixed capital
  • Zakat on commercial assets such as inventories, work in process etc.
  • Zakat on livestock
  • Zakat on agriculture 'Ushr
  • Zakat on honey and animal products
  • Zakat on mining and fishing
  • Almsgiving on self Sadaqatul fitr (fast-breaking zakah)


  • Donation to build Mosques and Schools
  • Helping Non-Muslim


Minimums and amounts

It is not written anywhere in the Qur'an of a specific amount, in fact it goes so far to specifically say that there is no specific amount or rate however most Muslims pay 2.5% of their income as is specified in the Books of Bukhari and Muslim. It is an obligation on Muslims to pay 1/40 (2.5%) of the wealth which they have had for a full lunar year, 1/40 (2.5%) of goods used for trade, and 5% or 10% of certain type of harvests depending on irrigation. Exempt from Zakat are a person's house and personal transportation.

Zakat is not mandatory on harvest if the total did not reach the minimum limit (nisāb) of about 653 kilograms of crops[7], nor on gold amounts if the owner has less than 85 grams of gold or less than 595 grams of silver.[8]

The Qur'an specifies that Zakat should be paid upon receipt of income in the passage 6:141 "Eat from their fruits, and give the due alms on the day of harvest". However most Muslims calculate and pay their Zakat at the end of the Lunar year as said above. In some communities this is frowned upon.

Who is entitled to receive Zakat

Eight catergory of individual may received the zakat, Noble Quran (9:60)

  • 1. The needy (Muslims or Non Muslim)- Fuqara'
  • 2. Extremely poor (Muslims or Non Muslims) - Al-Masakin
  • 3. Those employed to collect - Aamileen
  • 4. Those whose hearts are to be won - Muallafatul Quloob
  • 5. To free the captives - Ar-Riqaab
  • 6. Those in debt (Muslims or Non Muslims) - Al Ghaarimeen
  • 7. In the way of Allah - Fi Sabeelillah
  • 8. Wayfarer (Muslims or Non Muslims)- Ibnus-Sabeel

As a general rule, the receipinet must be a Muslim living individual who does not possess wealth equal or an excess of a prescribed threshold amount Nisaab

Ineligible Recepient

The following recipients are not eligible to receive the obligatory due (Zakat)

  • Descendants of the family of Prophet
  • On behalf of a deceased person for shrouding, burial or payment of debts
  • In places where Muslims are financially capable of entertaining such projects as construction or maintainance of Mosque, School and similar projects (usually developed countries)
  • In places where Muslims are financially weak (3rd world), Zakah can be used for construction or maintainance of Mosque and School

Zakat in Sufism

While Zakat plays a large role in the Muslim religion, "classic Sufi sources portray the Sufi as standing outside the system of Zakat". This is because a traditional Sufi will own no property and therefore they will pay no Zakat. It must be noted that the Prophet of Islam lived his life at this level, so simple were his needs and possessions that he never qualified for the nisab due to him donating most of his earnings on a daily basis. See also

perjantai 13. marraskuuta 2009

Scientists have created a Robot Scientist which have independently discovered new scientific knowledge. The robot, called Adam, carries out each stage of the scientific process automatically without theneed for further human intervention. Using artificial intelligence, Adam hypothesised that certain genes in baker's yeast code for specific enzymes which catalyse biochemical reactions in yeast. The robot then devised experiments to test these predictions, ran the experiments using laboratory robotics, interpreted the results and repeated the cycle. The researchers used separate manual experiments to confirm that Adam's hypotheses were both novel and correct. Another robotic scientist tested pendulums and springs to figure out the physics laws that govern their movements. Simply by experimenting, the robot deduced the equations governing motion and the physical laws behind them for these simple machines.

Ultimately, teams of human and robot scientists may work together in laboratories. Because biological systems are complex, it is important to record as many details as possible."What does He do to a soul which He has chosen from all eternity to be His? In the great majority of cases 'He leads her into solitude to speak to her heart': Ducam eam in solitudinem et loquar ad cor ejus. Just as a vineyard is enclosed with a hedge to protect it, so the Spouse encloses that soul in the cloister 'in the clefts of the rocks': in foraminibus petrae; the mysterious sepulchre which becomes the cradle of life; He hides her 'in the secret of His face'; in abscondito faciei suae: He makes her dwell in silence, so that she may be recollected, may hear His voice more easily, may please Him alone. He gives the Rule which at each instant shows His will; for light, the Holy Scriptures, which recount His history and reveal His love; He gives the Church for Mother. He confides to her His praises so that 'her voice sounds sweet in His ears' Sonet vox tua in auribus meis, vox enim tua dulcis; He makes her live again the cycle of His mysteries, and by His sacraments gives her sovereign power. Such are the means by which the Spouse establishes safeguards, maintains and augments the love and fidelity of His elect."

keskiviikko 11. marraskuuta 2009

perjantai 6. marraskuuta 2009

Cosmology and immortality.

TL: The great thing about the Greek gods is that they had human
Nature is that way; it's basically playful.
DB: These as well_they can be sexy, jealous, vain, loving, whatever_all
the attributes of people.

The Virtual Universe

Tellus is a blocked external link

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ihmisyys. hyvä aihe. loogisesti näyttäisi siltä että itse estämme oman ihmisyytemme mutta (todellisuudessa) väliin ryntää x. man is a machine

6/11/09 2:33 PM

Anonymous Anonymous said...

ei ole tarkoituskaan luotettavasti ilmaista yhtään mitään. tarkoitus on suojella tuntematonta

"mieli" ei ole sama kuin "minä".

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torstai 5. marraskuuta 2009

Why do people collaborate?

collaborate in order to keep on collaborating. Time is being invested to be able to invest more time (says bas reys) donno

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