alternatives to strict horizontalism do not have to be state-centric. One way of expressing this has been through the term ‘diagonalism’, sometimes offered as a middle point between horizontalism and verticalism (e.g. Haysom 2014).
social movements have also fallen short of elaborating anything resembling the democratic procedures.magining and constructing transnational institutions that would take into account the best insights of Marxism and anarchism is a task for the future---new forms of transnational non-state representationposit instead that this election has not marked the emergence of Islamophobia as a form of racialized politics; this election has merely made transparent the fact that for the past few centuries the Netherlands has operated within this framework of racialized politics. Citizenship rules and regulations, categories of belonging, media, educational and everyday semantics – all of these structures that organize daily life are thoroughly racialized.