Diplomacy, diplo matia, double view, is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups and states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace-making, trade, war, economics, culture, environment and human rights. International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. In an informal or social sense, diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage or to find mutually acceptable solutions to a common challenge, one set of tools being the phrasing of statements in a non-confrontational, or polite manner.
German Jews have existed since at least the early 4th century. The community prospered under Charlemagne, but suffered during the Crusades. Accusations of well poisoning during the Black Death led to mass slaughters of German Jews, and their fleeing in large numbers to Poland.
From the time of Moses Mendelssohn until the 20th century the community gradually achieved emancipation, and then prospered. However, following the growth of Nazism and its antisemitic ideology and policies, the Jewish community was severely persecuted. Many Jews emigrated, and of the 522,000 Jews living in Germany in January 1933, only 214,000 were left by the eve of World War II. 90% of the remaining community was killed during the war.
After the war the Jewish community started to slowly grow again, fueled primarily by immigration from the former USSR. By the 21st century, the Jewish population of Germany approached 200,000, and Germany had the only growing Jewish community in Europe
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